Limits...
Cytotoxic effects and the mechanism of three types of magnetic nanoparticles on human hepatoma BEL-7402 cells.

Kai W, Xiaojun X, Ximing P, Zhenqing H, Qiqing Z - Nanoscale Res Lett (2011)

Bottom Line: The increase in apoptosis was accompanied with the Bax over-expression, mitochondrial membrane potential decrease, and the release of cytochrome C from mitochondria into cytosol.Our results revealed that certain concentrations of the three types of MNPs affect BEL-7402 cells viability via cell arrest and inducing apoptosis, and the MNPs-induced apoptosis is mediated through the mitochondrial-dependent pathway.The influence potency of MNPs observed in all experiments would be: C-Fe > Fe3O4 > OA-Fe3O4.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, PR China. qiq@xmu.edu.cn.

ABSTRACT
The evaluation of the toxicity of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) has attracted much attention in recent years. The current study aimed to investigate the cytotoxic effects of Fe3O4, oleic acid-coated Fe3O4 (OA-Fe3O4), and carbon-coated Fe (C-Fe) nanoparticles on human hepatoma BEL-7402 cells and the mechanisms. WST-1 assay demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of three types of MNPs was in a dose-dependent manner. G1 (Fe3O4 and OA-Fe3O4) phase and G2 (C-Fe) phase cell arrests and apoptosis induced by MNPs were detected by flow cytometry analysis. The increase in apoptosis was accompanied with the Bax over-expression, mitochondrial membrane potential decrease, and the release of cytochrome C from mitochondria into cytosol. Moreover, apoptosis was further confirmed by morphological and biochemical hallmarks, such as swollen mitochondria with lysing cristae and caspase-3 activation. Our results revealed that certain concentrations of the three types of MNPs affect BEL-7402 cells viability via cell arrest and inducing apoptosis, and the MNPs-induced apoptosis is mediated through the mitochondrial-dependent pathway. The influence potency of MNPs observed in all experiments would be: C-Fe > Fe3O4 > OA-Fe3O4.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

TEM micrographs of BEL-7402 exposed for 24 h to the different MNPs. (A) TEM micrographs of cell endocytosis; (A1) the enlargement of the rectangular areas on the corresponding images on the left side; (B) untreated cells; (C) cells exposed 0.5 mg/mL Fe3O4 MNPs; (D) cells exposed 0.5 mg/mL OA- Fe3O4 MNPs; (E) cells exposed 0.5 mg/mL C-Fe MNPs. Red circles show MNPs in the BEL-7402 cells.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3211994&req=5

Figure 1: TEM micrographs of BEL-7402 exposed for 24 h to the different MNPs. (A) TEM micrographs of cell endocytosis; (A1) the enlargement of the rectangular areas on the corresponding images on the left side; (B) untreated cells; (C) cells exposed 0.5 mg/mL Fe3O4 MNPs; (D) cells exposed 0.5 mg/mL OA- Fe3O4 MNPs; (E) cells exposed 0.5 mg/mL C-Fe MNPs. Red circles show MNPs in the BEL-7402 cells.

Mentions: When cells were exposed to MNPs, most nanoparticles were first adhered to the surface, internalized to the cells by endocytosis, and accumulated in digestive vacuoles [32]. Our TEM images results showed that all three kinds of MNPs were incorporated into BEL-7402 cells after 24-h incubation at 0.5 mg/mL of concentration. The MNPs were distributed on the cell membrane and inside of cell. Some MNPs were observed enclosed by the invaginated cell membrane (Figure 1A), suggesting that endocytosis may involve the MNPs internalization process [21]. Lysosomes containing MNPs and swollen mitochondria with lysing cristae were present in MNPs treated cells (Figure 1C-D), coinciding with some results obtained in other MNPs [21,33]. Some cells showed chromatin condensation, typical of apoptotic cell death, and plenty of cytoplasmic vacuoles (Figure 1C-E). Treating with OA-Fe3O4 induced less cell damage than that of Fe3O4, while the C-Fe causes serious cell damage. Untreated cells had none of these features (Figure 1B).


Cytotoxic effects and the mechanism of three types of magnetic nanoparticles on human hepatoma BEL-7402 cells.

Kai W, Xiaojun X, Ximing P, Zhenqing H, Qiqing Z - Nanoscale Res Lett (2011)

TEM micrographs of BEL-7402 exposed for 24 h to the different MNPs. (A) TEM micrographs of cell endocytosis; (A1) the enlargement of the rectangular areas on the corresponding images on the left side; (B) untreated cells; (C) cells exposed 0.5 mg/mL Fe3O4 MNPs; (D) cells exposed 0.5 mg/mL OA- Fe3O4 MNPs; (E) cells exposed 0.5 mg/mL C-Fe MNPs. Red circles show MNPs in the BEL-7402 cells.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3211994&req=5

Figure 1: TEM micrographs of BEL-7402 exposed for 24 h to the different MNPs. (A) TEM micrographs of cell endocytosis; (A1) the enlargement of the rectangular areas on the corresponding images on the left side; (B) untreated cells; (C) cells exposed 0.5 mg/mL Fe3O4 MNPs; (D) cells exposed 0.5 mg/mL OA- Fe3O4 MNPs; (E) cells exposed 0.5 mg/mL C-Fe MNPs. Red circles show MNPs in the BEL-7402 cells.
Mentions: When cells were exposed to MNPs, most nanoparticles were first adhered to the surface, internalized to the cells by endocytosis, and accumulated in digestive vacuoles [32]. Our TEM images results showed that all three kinds of MNPs were incorporated into BEL-7402 cells after 24-h incubation at 0.5 mg/mL of concentration. The MNPs were distributed on the cell membrane and inside of cell. Some MNPs were observed enclosed by the invaginated cell membrane (Figure 1A), suggesting that endocytosis may involve the MNPs internalization process [21]. Lysosomes containing MNPs and swollen mitochondria with lysing cristae were present in MNPs treated cells (Figure 1C-D), coinciding with some results obtained in other MNPs [21,33]. Some cells showed chromatin condensation, typical of apoptotic cell death, and plenty of cytoplasmic vacuoles (Figure 1C-E). Treating with OA-Fe3O4 induced less cell damage than that of Fe3O4, while the C-Fe causes serious cell damage. Untreated cells had none of these features (Figure 1B).

Bottom Line: The increase in apoptosis was accompanied with the Bax over-expression, mitochondrial membrane potential decrease, and the release of cytochrome C from mitochondria into cytosol.Our results revealed that certain concentrations of the three types of MNPs affect BEL-7402 cells viability via cell arrest and inducing apoptosis, and the MNPs-induced apoptosis is mediated through the mitochondrial-dependent pathway.The influence potency of MNPs observed in all experiments would be: C-Fe > Fe3O4 > OA-Fe3O4.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, PR China. qiq@xmu.edu.cn.

ABSTRACT
The evaluation of the toxicity of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) has attracted much attention in recent years. The current study aimed to investigate the cytotoxic effects of Fe3O4, oleic acid-coated Fe3O4 (OA-Fe3O4), and carbon-coated Fe (C-Fe) nanoparticles on human hepatoma BEL-7402 cells and the mechanisms. WST-1 assay demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of three types of MNPs was in a dose-dependent manner. G1 (Fe3O4 and OA-Fe3O4) phase and G2 (C-Fe) phase cell arrests and apoptosis induced by MNPs were detected by flow cytometry analysis. The increase in apoptosis was accompanied with the Bax over-expression, mitochondrial membrane potential decrease, and the release of cytochrome C from mitochondria into cytosol. Moreover, apoptosis was further confirmed by morphological and biochemical hallmarks, such as swollen mitochondria with lysing cristae and caspase-3 activation. Our results revealed that certain concentrations of the three types of MNPs affect BEL-7402 cells viability via cell arrest and inducing apoptosis, and the MNPs-induced apoptosis is mediated through the mitochondrial-dependent pathway. The influence potency of MNPs observed in all experiments would be: C-Fe > Fe3O4 > OA-Fe3O4.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus