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Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes Exhibit Dual-Phase Regulation to Exposed Arabidopsis Mesophyll Cells

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ABSTRACT

Herein we are the first to report that single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) exhibit dual-phase regulation to Arabidopsis mesophyll cells exposed to different concentration of SWCNTs. The mesophyll protoplasts were prepared by enzyme digestion, and incubated with 15, 25, 50, 100 μg/ml SWCNTs for 48 h, and then were observed by optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was measured. Partial protoplasts were stained with propidium iodide and 4'-6- diamidino-2-phenylindole, partial protoplasts were incubated with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled SWCNTs, and observed by fluorescence microscopy. Results showed that SWCNTs could traverse both the plant cell wall and cell membrane, with less than or equal to 50 μg/ml in the culture medium, SWCNTs stimulated plant cells to grow out trichome clusters on their surface, with more than 50 μg/ml SWCNTs in the culture medium, SWCNTs exhibited obvious toxic effects to the protoplasts such as increasing generation of ROS, inducing changes of protoplast morphology, changing green leaves into yellow, and inducing protoplast cells' necrosis and apoptosis. In conclusion, single walled carbon nanotubes can get through Arabidopsis mesophyll cell wall and membrane, and exhibit dose-dependent dual-phase regulation to Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts such as low dose stimulating cell growth, and high dose inducing cells' ROS generation, necrosis or apoptosis.

No MeSH data available.


Optical images and SEM images of Arabidopsis mesophyll cells exposed to SWCNTs. a Plant cells treated without or with 15 μg/ml SWCNTs; b and c plant cells treated with 15, 25 μg/ml of SWCNTs for 24 h. d Plant cells treated with 25 μg/ml of SWCNTs for 48 h; e plant cells without exposed SWCNTs as control; f plant cells treated with 15 μg/ml of SWCNTs for 24 h.
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Figure 6: Optical images and SEM images of Arabidopsis mesophyll cells exposed to SWCNTs. a Plant cells treated without or with 15 μg/ml SWCNTs; b and c plant cells treated with 15, 25 μg/ml of SWCNTs for 24 h. d Plant cells treated with 25 μg/ml of SWCNTs for 48 h; e plant cells without exposed SWCNTs as control; f plant cells treated with 15 μg/ml of SWCNTs for 24 h.

Mentions: However, surprisingly, we observed that, as shown in Figure 6, under the condition of 25 μg/ml SWCNTs and 15 μg/ml SWCNTs in culture media, there existed many new-born trichome clusters on the surface of the plant leaves, the trichome clusters on the surface of leaves treated with 25 μg/ml SWCNTs was markedly more than those treated with 15 μg/ml SWCNTs, compared with control, there existed statistical difference among their amounts of three groups (P < 0.05). Therefore, we consider that low dose of SWCNTs can speed up the trichome development.


Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes Exhibit Dual-Phase Regulation to Exposed Arabidopsis Mesophyll Cells
Optical images and SEM images of Arabidopsis mesophyll cells exposed to SWCNTs. a Plant cells treated without or with 15 μg/ml SWCNTs; b and c plant cells treated with 15, 25 μg/ml of SWCNTs for 24 h. d Plant cells treated with 25 μg/ml of SWCNTs for 48 h; e plant cells without exposed SWCNTs as control; f plant cells treated with 15 μg/ml of SWCNTs for 24 h.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3211858&req=5

Figure 6: Optical images and SEM images of Arabidopsis mesophyll cells exposed to SWCNTs. a Plant cells treated without or with 15 μg/ml SWCNTs; b and c plant cells treated with 15, 25 μg/ml of SWCNTs for 24 h. d Plant cells treated with 25 μg/ml of SWCNTs for 48 h; e plant cells without exposed SWCNTs as control; f plant cells treated with 15 μg/ml of SWCNTs for 24 h.
Mentions: However, surprisingly, we observed that, as shown in Figure 6, under the condition of 25 μg/ml SWCNTs and 15 μg/ml SWCNTs in culture media, there existed many new-born trichome clusters on the surface of the plant leaves, the trichome clusters on the surface of leaves treated with 25 μg/ml SWCNTs was markedly more than those treated with 15 μg/ml SWCNTs, compared with control, there existed statistical difference among their amounts of three groups (P < 0.05). Therefore, we consider that low dose of SWCNTs can speed up the trichome development.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Herein we are the first to report that single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) exhibit dual-phase regulation to Arabidopsis mesophyll cells exposed to different concentration of SWCNTs. The mesophyll protoplasts were prepared by enzyme digestion, and incubated with 15, 25, 50, 100 &mu;g/ml SWCNTs for 48 h, and then were observed by optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was measured. Partial protoplasts were stained with propidium iodide and 4'-6- diamidino-2-phenylindole, partial protoplasts were incubated with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled SWCNTs, and observed by fluorescence microscopy. Results showed that SWCNTs could traverse both the plant cell wall and cell membrane, with less than or equal to 50 &mu;g/ml in the culture medium, SWCNTs stimulated plant cells to grow out trichome clusters on their surface, with more than 50 &mu;g/ml SWCNTs in the culture medium, SWCNTs exhibited obvious toxic effects to the protoplasts such as increasing generation of ROS, inducing changes of protoplast morphology, changing green leaves into yellow, and inducing protoplast cells' necrosis and apoptosis. In conclusion, single walled carbon nanotubes can get through Arabidopsis mesophyll cell wall and membrane, and exhibit dose-dependent dual-phase regulation to Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts such as low dose stimulating cell growth, and high dose inducing cells' ROS generation, necrosis or apoptosis.

No MeSH data available.