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Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes Exhibit Dual-Phase Regulation to Exposed Arabidopsis Mesophyll Cells

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ABSTRACT

Herein we are the first to report that single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) exhibit dual-phase regulation to Arabidopsis mesophyll cells exposed to different concentration of SWCNTs. The mesophyll protoplasts were prepared by enzyme digestion, and incubated with 15, 25, 50, 100 μg/ml SWCNTs for 48 h, and then were observed by optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was measured. Partial protoplasts were stained with propidium iodide and 4'-6- diamidino-2-phenylindole, partial protoplasts were incubated with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled SWCNTs, and observed by fluorescence microscopy. Results showed that SWCNTs could traverse both the plant cell wall and cell membrane, with less than or equal to 50 μg/ml in the culture medium, SWCNTs stimulated plant cells to grow out trichome clusters on their surface, with more than 50 μg/ml SWCNTs in the culture medium, SWCNTs exhibited obvious toxic effects to the protoplasts such as increasing generation of ROS, inducing changes of protoplast morphology, changing green leaves into yellow, and inducing protoplast cells' necrosis and apoptosis. In conclusion, single walled carbon nanotubes can get through Arabidopsis mesophyll cell wall and membrane, and exhibit dose-dependent dual-phase regulation to Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts such as low dose stimulating cell growth, and high dose inducing cells' ROS generation, necrosis or apoptosis.

No MeSH data available.


Optical microscope images of protoplasts incubated with 50 μg/ml SWCNTs. a Protoplasts dispersed well; b partial protoplasts aggregated together; c protoplasts aggregated together.
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Figure 4: Optical microscope images of protoplasts incubated with 50 μg/ml SWCNTs. a Protoplasts dispersed well; b partial protoplasts aggregated together; c protoplasts aggregated together.

Mentions: As shown in Figure 4, under the condition of 50 or 100 μg/ml SWCNTs in culture media, SWCNTs actively attached to the surface of the protoplasts, some of the SWCNTs aggregated together, all the protoplasts became small in size and appeared wrinkly as the culture time increased, which highly suggested that SWCNTs can change the morphology of protoplasts.


Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes Exhibit Dual-Phase Regulation to Exposed Arabidopsis Mesophyll Cells
Optical microscope images of protoplasts incubated with 50 μg/ml SWCNTs. a Protoplasts dispersed well; b partial protoplasts aggregated together; c protoplasts aggregated together.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3211858&req=5

Figure 4: Optical microscope images of protoplasts incubated with 50 μg/ml SWCNTs. a Protoplasts dispersed well; b partial protoplasts aggregated together; c protoplasts aggregated together.
Mentions: As shown in Figure 4, under the condition of 50 or 100 μg/ml SWCNTs in culture media, SWCNTs actively attached to the surface of the protoplasts, some of the SWCNTs aggregated together, all the protoplasts became small in size and appeared wrinkly as the culture time increased, which highly suggested that SWCNTs can change the morphology of protoplasts.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Herein we are the first to report that single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) exhibit dual-phase regulation to Arabidopsis mesophyll cells exposed to different concentration of SWCNTs. The mesophyll protoplasts were prepared by enzyme digestion, and incubated with 15, 25, 50, 100 μg/ml SWCNTs for 48 h, and then were observed by optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was measured. Partial protoplasts were stained with propidium iodide and 4'-6- diamidino-2-phenylindole, partial protoplasts were incubated with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled SWCNTs, and observed by fluorescence microscopy. Results showed that SWCNTs could traverse both the plant cell wall and cell membrane, with less than or equal to 50 μg/ml in the culture medium, SWCNTs stimulated plant cells to grow out trichome clusters on their surface, with more than 50 μg/ml SWCNTs in the culture medium, SWCNTs exhibited obvious toxic effects to the protoplasts such as increasing generation of ROS, inducing changes of protoplast morphology, changing green leaves into yellow, and inducing protoplast cells' necrosis and apoptosis. In conclusion, single walled carbon nanotubes can get through Arabidopsis mesophyll cell wall and membrane, and exhibit dose-dependent dual-phase regulation to Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts such as low dose stimulating cell growth, and high dose inducing cells' ROS generation, necrosis or apoptosis.

No MeSH data available.