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Cellulose fibres, nanofibrils and microfibrils: The morphological sequence of MFC components from a plant physiology and fibre technology point of view.

Chinga-Carrasco G - Nanoscale Res Lett (2011)

Bottom Line: It is concluded that MFC materials may be composed of (1) nanofibrils, (2) fibrillar fines, (3) fibre fragments and (4) fibres.This implies that MFC is not necessarily synonymous with nanofibrils, microfibrils or any other cellulose nano-structure.However, properly produced MFC materials contain nano-structures as a main component, i.e. nanofibrils.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Paper and Fibre Research Institute (PFI AS), Høgskolerringen 6b, 7491 Trondheim, Norway. gary.chinga.carrasco@pfi.no.

ABSTRACT
During the last decade, major efforts have been made to develop adequate and commercially viable processes for disintegrating cellulose fibres into their structural components. Homogenisation of cellulose fibres has been one of the principal applied procedures. Homogenisation has produced materials which may be inhomogeneous, containing fibres, fibres fragments, fibrillar fines and nanofibrils. The material has been denominated microfibrillated cellulose (MFC). In addition, terms relating to the nano-scale have been given to the MFC material. Several modern and high-tech nano-applications have been envisaged for MFC. However, is MFC a nano-structure? It is concluded that MFC materials may be composed of (1) nanofibrils, (2) fibrillar fines, (3) fibre fragments and (4) fibres. This implies that MFC is not necessarily synonymous with nanofibrils, microfibrils or any other cellulose nano-structure. However, properly produced MFC materials contain nano-structures as a main component, i.e. nanofibrils.

No MeSH data available.


Films made of cellulose materials with a grammage of 20 g/m2. (A) Control film made of 100% P. radiata pulp fibres. (B) Film made of MFC, homogenised with three passes and 1,000 bar pressure. (C) Film made of MFC, homogenised with five passes and 1,000 bar pressure. (D) Film made of MFC produced with TEMPO-pre-treated fibres, three passes and 200 bar pressure. (E) Film made of MFC produced with TEMPO-pre-treated fibres, three passes and 600 bar pressure. (D) Film made of MFC produced with TEMPO-pre-treated fibres, five passes and 1,000 bar pressure. Dark threadlike structures indicate poorly fibrillated fibres or fibre fragments. The lighter the local areas, the higher the transparency levels. For details, see Syverud et al. [35].
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Figure 3: Films made of cellulose materials with a grammage of 20 g/m2. (A) Control film made of 100% P. radiata pulp fibres. (B) Film made of MFC, homogenised with three passes and 1,000 bar pressure. (C) Film made of MFC, homogenised with five passes and 1,000 bar pressure. (D) Film made of MFC produced with TEMPO-pre-treated fibres, three passes and 200 bar pressure. (E) Film made of MFC produced with TEMPO-pre-treated fibres, three passes and 600 bar pressure. (D) Film made of MFC produced with TEMPO-pre-treated fibres, five passes and 1,000 bar pressure. Dark threadlike structures indicate poorly fibrillated fibres or fibre fragments. The lighter the local areas, the higher the transparency levels. For details, see Syverud et al. [35].

Mentions: Although microfibrils seem to be the main component of MFC, several studies have shown that fibrillation produces a material which may be inhomogeneous [2,16,26,27], containing, e.g. fibres, fibre fragments, fines and fibrils (Figures 3, 4 and 5). As exemplified in Figure 3, the fraction of each component depends on (1) the treatment applied to the fibres before homogenization, (2) the number of passes through the homogenizer and (3) the pressure applied during homogenization. The more severe the homogenisation, the more fibrillated is the material. Higher degree of fibrillation can be indicated by an increase in the transparencies of the MFC materials due to the generation of optically inactive fibrils. Such fibrils form dense and compact structures, with low light scattering potential.


Cellulose fibres, nanofibrils and microfibrils: The morphological sequence of MFC components from a plant physiology and fibre technology point of view.

Chinga-Carrasco G - Nanoscale Res Lett (2011)

Films made of cellulose materials with a grammage of 20 g/m2. (A) Control film made of 100% P. radiata pulp fibres. (B) Film made of MFC, homogenised with three passes and 1,000 bar pressure. (C) Film made of MFC, homogenised with five passes and 1,000 bar pressure. (D) Film made of MFC produced with TEMPO-pre-treated fibres, three passes and 200 bar pressure. (E) Film made of MFC produced with TEMPO-pre-treated fibres, three passes and 600 bar pressure. (D) Film made of MFC produced with TEMPO-pre-treated fibres, five passes and 1,000 bar pressure. Dark threadlike structures indicate poorly fibrillated fibres or fibre fragments. The lighter the local areas, the higher the transparency levels. For details, see Syverud et al. [35].
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3211513&req=5

Figure 3: Films made of cellulose materials with a grammage of 20 g/m2. (A) Control film made of 100% P. radiata pulp fibres. (B) Film made of MFC, homogenised with three passes and 1,000 bar pressure. (C) Film made of MFC, homogenised with five passes and 1,000 bar pressure. (D) Film made of MFC produced with TEMPO-pre-treated fibres, three passes and 200 bar pressure. (E) Film made of MFC produced with TEMPO-pre-treated fibres, three passes and 600 bar pressure. (D) Film made of MFC produced with TEMPO-pre-treated fibres, five passes and 1,000 bar pressure. Dark threadlike structures indicate poorly fibrillated fibres or fibre fragments. The lighter the local areas, the higher the transparency levels. For details, see Syverud et al. [35].
Mentions: Although microfibrils seem to be the main component of MFC, several studies have shown that fibrillation produces a material which may be inhomogeneous [2,16,26,27], containing, e.g. fibres, fibre fragments, fines and fibrils (Figures 3, 4 and 5). As exemplified in Figure 3, the fraction of each component depends on (1) the treatment applied to the fibres before homogenization, (2) the number of passes through the homogenizer and (3) the pressure applied during homogenization. The more severe the homogenisation, the more fibrillated is the material. Higher degree of fibrillation can be indicated by an increase in the transparencies of the MFC materials due to the generation of optically inactive fibrils. Such fibrils form dense and compact structures, with low light scattering potential.

Bottom Line: It is concluded that MFC materials may be composed of (1) nanofibrils, (2) fibrillar fines, (3) fibre fragments and (4) fibres.This implies that MFC is not necessarily synonymous with nanofibrils, microfibrils or any other cellulose nano-structure.However, properly produced MFC materials contain nano-structures as a main component, i.e. nanofibrils.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Paper and Fibre Research Institute (PFI AS), Høgskolerringen 6b, 7491 Trondheim, Norway. gary.chinga.carrasco@pfi.no.

ABSTRACT
During the last decade, major efforts have been made to develop adequate and commercially viable processes for disintegrating cellulose fibres into their structural components. Homogenisation of cellulose fibres has been one of the principal applied procedures. Homogenisation has produced materials which may be inhomogeneous, containing fibres, fibres fragments, fibrillar fines and nanofibrils. The material has been denominated microfibrillated cellulose (MFC). In addition, terms relating to the nano-scale have been given to the MFC material. Several modern and high-tech nano-applications have been envisaged for MFC. However, is MFC a nano-structure? It is concluded that MFC materials may be composed of (1) nanofibrils, (2) fibrillar fines, (3) fibre fragments and (4) fibres. This implies that MFC is not necessarily synonymous with nanofibrils, microfibrils or any other cellulose nano-structure. However, properly produced MFC materials contain nano-structures as a main component, i.e. nanofibrils.

No MeSH data available.