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Synthesis of carbon nanotubes with and without catalyst particles.

Rümmeli MH, Bachmatiuk A, Börrnert F, Schäffel F, Ibrahim I, Cendrowski K, Simha-Martynkova G, Plachá D, Borowiak-Palen E, Cuniberti G, Büchner B - Nanoscale Res Lett (2011)

Bottom Line: More recently, noble metals (e.g. Au) and poor metals (e.g. In, Pb) have been shown to also yield carbon nanotubes.All-carbon systems for carbon nanotube growth without any catalytic particles have also been demonstrated.These different growth systems are briefly examined in this article and serve to highlight the breadth of avenues available for carbon nanotube synthesis.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: IFW Dresden, P,O, Box 270116, 01069 Dresden, Germany. m.ruemmeli@ifw-dresden.de.

ABSTRACT
The initial development of carbon nanotube synthesis revolved heavily around the use of 3d valence transition metals such as Fe, Ni, and Co. More recently, noble metals (e.g. Au) and poor metals (e.g. In, Pb) have been shown to also yield carbon nanotubes. In addition, various ceramics and semiconductors can serve as catalytic particles suitable for tube formation and in some cases hybrid metal/metal oxide systems are possible. All-carbon systems for carbon nanotube growth without any catalytic particles have also been demonstrated. These different growth systems are briefly examined in this article and serve to highlight the breadth of avenues available for carbon nanotube synthesis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic representation of the carbothermal reduction of silica to silicon carbide and carbon nanostructure formation: (a) SiO2 is reduced to SiC via a carbothermal reaction, (b) SiC nanoparticles coalesce, (c) carbon caps form on the surface of the SiC particles through precipitation and/or SiC decomposition. Reproduced with permission from Bachmatiuk et al. [37].
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Figure 7: Schematic representation of the carbothermal reduction of silica to silicon carbide and carbon nanostructure formation: (a) SiO2 is reduced to SiC via a carbothermal reaction, (b) SiC nanoparticles coalesce, (c) carbon caps form on the surface of the SiC particles through precipitation and/or SiC decomposition. Reproduced with permission from Bachmatiuk et al. [37].

Mentions: Whilst significant strides have been made in understanding CNT synthesis, the mechanisms behind growth remain a highly debated issue. In part this is due to some mechanisms being presented as universal. The brief variety of synthesis strategies presented in this simple review alone, highlight the need for particular mechanisms for specific routes and conditions. It is generally accepted that VLS description presented by Baker et al. [13] for carbon filament growth is also applicable to carbon nanotube growth, at least when metal catalyst particles are employed. However, even in this case, there are inconsistencies. As Reilly and Whitten [54] pointed out, the so called catalyst poisoning has yet to be demonstrated. As they highlight, often it is argued that a metal catalyst particle coated with amorphous carbon is considered poisoned, yet when it is coated with graphitic carbon (CNT growth) it is not considered poisoned, viz. they are apparently still able to decompose hydrocarbons. This oddity is further illustrated by our studies in which the catalyst particles lie fully within the core of the CNT [42,43]. Moreover, the ability of oxides to form graphene [40,55] and CNT [26-38] with out any metal catalyst present further weakens the commonly accepted notion that the (metal) catalyst particle is required to decompose the hydrocarbon. Reilly and Whitten proposed a free radical condensate (FRC) forms which provides carbon species through a leaving group. The breaking of carbon-hydrogen or carbon-carbon bonds naturally form free-radicals in hydrocarbon pyrolysis, with each fragment keeping one electron to form two radicals. The presence of a radical in a hydrocarbon molecule enables rapid rearrangement of carbon bonds. This same argument can explain the nucleation of CNT from unstable nano-humps which form on graphitic surfaces which then eventually lead to the formation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes [52,53]. Thus, in the FRC model, the catalyst particle's primary role is to serve as template for the formation of hemispherical caps at nucleation (as this reduces the high total surface energy of the particle caused by its high curvature). Thereafter, the catalyst may also provide an interface where carbon rearrangement may occur. However, this is not a prerequisite. Another surface, for example, an oxide support or simply unsaturated bonds at the edges of graphitic layers (e.g. open tube ends) can provide suitable sites for growth. Various studies provide experimental evidence for carbon addition to the edges of free standing graphitic edges [56-58]. In this scenario, carbon species are able to diffuse along the surface of graphitic layers which are then adsorbed at the edges. This self-assembling mechanism can explain the growth of cloned SWNT [51], SWNT nucleated from opened fullerenes [49,50] and from MWNT grown on graphitic surfaces [52,53]. In the case of CNT growth from stable oxides (oxides which are not reduced in the reaction), either in nano-particulate form or as the support material, the VLS theory is not valid since carbon dissolution is unlikely and probably occurs through surface diffusion processes. In the case of very small (<5 nm) non-metallic catalyst particles, the increased relative fraction of low-coordinated atoms could lead to surface saturation followed by carbon precipitation [7]. On the other hand, where the oxide can be reduced to a carbide, as for example, the carbo-thermal reduction of SiO2 nanoparticles [37,38], bulk carbon dissolution and precipitation in a manner similar to the VLS theory may be relevant (e.g. Figure 7).


Synthesis of carbon nanotubes with and without catalyst particles.

Rümmeli MH, Bachmatiuk A, Börrnert F, Schäffel F, Ibrahim I, Cendrowski K, Simha-Martynkova G, Plachá D, Borowiak-Palen E, Cuniberti G, Büchner B - Nanoscale Res Lett (2011)

Schematic representation of the carbothermal reduction of silica to silicon carbide and carbon nanostructure formation: (a) SiO2 is reduced to SiC via a carbothermal reaction, (b) SiC nanoparticles coalesce, (c) carbon caps form on the surface of the SiC particles through precipitation and/or SiC decomposition. Reproduced with permission from Bachmatiuk et al. [37].
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3211370&req=5

Figure 7: Schematic representation of the carbothermal reduction of silica to silicon carbide and carbon nanostructure formation: (a) SiO2 is reduced to SiC via a carbothermal reaction, (b) SiC nanoparticles coalesce, (c) carbon caps form on the surface of the SiC particles through precipitation and/or SiC decomposition. Reproduced with permission from Bachmatiuk et al. [37].
Mentions: Whilst significant strides have been made in understanding CNT synthesis, the mechanisms behind growth remain a highly debated issue. In part this is due to some mechanisms being presented as universal. The brief variety of synthesis strategies presented in this simple review alone, highlight the need for particular mechanisms for specific routes and conditions. It is generally accepted that VLS description presented by Baker et al. [13] for carbon filament growth is also applicable to carbon nanotube growth, at least when metal catalyst particles are employed. However, even in this case, there are inconsistencies. As Reilly and Whitten [54] pointed out, the so called catalyst poisoning has yet to be demonstrated. As they highlight, often it is argued that a metal catalyst particle coated with amorphous carbon is considered poisoned, yet when it is coated with graphitic carbon (CNT growth) it is not considered poisoned, viz. they are apparently still able to decompose hydrocarbons. This oddity is further illustrated by our studies in which the catalyst particles lie fully within the core of the CNT [42,43]. Moreover, the ability of oxides to form graphene [40,55] and CNT [26-38] with out any metal catalyst present further weakens the commonly accepted notion that the (metal) catalyst particle is required to decompose the hydrocarbon. Reilly and Whitten proposed a free radical condensate (FRC) forms which provides carbon species through a leaving group. The breaking of carbon-hydrogen or carbon-carbon bonds naturally form free-radicals in hydrocarbon pyrolysis, with each fragment keeping one electron to form two radicals. The presence of a radical in a hydrocarbon molecule enables rapid rearrangement of carbon bonds. This same argument can explain the nucleation of CNT from unstable nano-humps which form on graphitic surfaces which then eventually lead to the formation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes [52,53]. Thus, in the FRC model, the catalyst particle's primary role is to serve as template for the formation of hemispherical caps at nucleation (as this reduces the high total surface energy of the particle caused by its high curvature). Thereafter, the catalyst may also provide an interface where carbon rearrangement may occur. However, this is not a prerequisite. Another surface, for example, an oxide support or simply unsaturated bonds at the edges of graphitic layers (e.g. open tube ends) can provide suitable sites for growth. Various studies provide experimental evidence for carbon addition to the edges of free standing graphitic edges [56-58]. In this scenario, carbon species are able to diffuse along the surface of graphitic layers which are then adsorbed at the edges. This self-assembling mechanism can explain the growth of cloned SWNT [51], SWNT nucleated from opened fullerenes [49,50] and from MWNT grown on graphitic surfaces [52,53]. In the case of CNT growth from stable oxides (oxides which are not reduced in the reaction), either in nano-particulate form or as the support material, the VLS theory is not valid since carbon dissolution is unlikely and probably occurs through surface diffusion processes. In the case of very small (<5 nm) non-metallic catalyst particles, the increased relative fraction of low-coordinated atoms could lead to surface saturation followed by carbon precipitation [7]. On the other hand, where the oxide can be reduced to a carbide, as for example, the carbo-thermal reduction of SiO2 nanoparticles [37,38], bulk carbon dissolution and precipitation in a manner similar to the VLS theory may be relevant (e.g. Figure 7).

Bottom Line: More recently, noble metals (e.g. Au) and poor metals (e.g. In, Pb) have been shown to also yield carbon nanotubes.All-carbon systems for carbon nanotube growth without any catalytic particles have also been demonstrated.These different growth systems are briefly examined in this article and serve to highlight the breadth of avenues available for carbon nanotube synthesis.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: IFW Dresden, P,O, Box 270116, 01069 Dresden, Germany. m.ruemmeli@ifw-dresden.de.

ABSTRACT
The initial development of carbon nanotube synthesis revolved heavily around the use of 3d valence transition metals such as Fe, Ni, and Co. More recently, noble metals (e.g. Au) and poor metals (e.g. In, Pb) have been shown to also yield carbon nanotubes. In addition, various ceramics and semiconductors can serve as catalytic particles suitable for tube formation and in some cases hybrid metal/metal oxide systems are possible. All-carbon systems for carbon nanotube growth without any catalytic particles have also been demonstrated. These different growth systems are briefly examined in this article and serve to highlight the breadth of avenues available for carbon nanotube synthesis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus