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Synthesis of carbon nanotubes with and without catalyst particles.

Rümmeli MH, Bachmatiuk A, Börrnert F, Schäffel F, Ibrahim I, Cendrowski K, Simha-Martynkova G, Plachá D, Borowiak-Palen E, Cuniberti G, Büchner B - Nanoscale Res Lett (2011)

Bottom Line: More recently, noble metals (e.g. Au) and poor metals (e.g. In, Pb) have been shown to also yield carbon nanotubes.All-carbon systems for carbon nanotube growth without any catalytic particles have also been demonstrated.These different growth systems are briefly examined in this article and serve to highlight the breadth of avenues available for carbon nanotube synthesis.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: IFW Dresden, P,O, Box 270116, 01069 Dresden, Germany. m.ruemmeli@ifw-dresden.de.

ABSTRACT
The initial development of carbon nanotube synthesis revolved heavily around the use of 3d valence transition metals such as Fe, Ni, and Co. More recently, noble metals (e.g. Au) and poor metals (e.g. In, Pb) have been shown to also yield carbon nanotubes. In addition, various ceramics and semiconductors can serve as catalytic particles suitable for tube formation and in some cases hybrid metal/metal oxide systems are possible. All-carbon systems for carbon nanotube growth without any catalytic particles have also been demonstrated. These different growth systems are briefly examined in this article and serve to highlight the breadth of avenues available for carbon nanotube synthesis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Proposed mechanism for the growth of single walled carbon nanotubes using thermally opened C60 caps according to Yu et al. [50]. Reprinted with permission.
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Figure 6: Proposed mechanism for the growth of single walled carbon nanotubes using thermally opened C60 caps according to Yu et al. [50]. Reprinted with permission.

Mentions: The formation of CNT on the cathode in the arc-discharge route can occur without catalyst addition as shown by the work of Bacon in 1957 [47] and more recently by Iijima [1]. Despite the huge impact of Iijima's 1991 Nature paper, the fact that no catalyst was required was largely ignored or forgotten. More recently, a broad array of growth routes using pure carbon systems without any catalyst particle addition have emerged. Takagi et al. [48] have shown that SWNT can be grown in CVD using nano-diamond particles as catalysts. Moreover, nano-diamond particles do not suffer from coalescence and sintering difficulties. Exciting strategies to open fullerenes and use them as nucleation caps for SWNT have also been demonstrated. Once the fullerenes have been opened they are subjected to a CVD process and grow tubes [49,50]. The proposed growth mechanism is given in Figure 6. In a similar vein, the direct cloning of SWNT was shown by Liu and co-workers [51]. The formation of CNT on graphitic surfaces has also been demonstrated in various works by Lin et al. [52,53]. In these studies by Lin et al., it was shown that the early formation of amorphous nanohumps apparently serve as seed sites for the self-assembly of CNT.


Synthesis of carbon nanotubes with and without catalyst particles.

Rümmeli MH, Bachmatiuk A, Börrnert F, Schäffel F, Ibrahim I, Cendrowski K, Simha-Martynkova G, Plachá D, Borowiak-Palen E, Cuniberti G, Büchner B - Nanoscale Res Lett (2011)

Proposed mechanism for the growth of single walled carbon nanotubes using thermally opened C60 caps according to Yu et al. [50]. Reprinted with permission.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3211370&req=5

Figure 6: Proposed mechanism for the growth of single walled carbon nanotubes using thermally opened C60 caps according to Yu et al. [50]. Reprinted with permission.
Mentions: The formation of CNT on the cathode in the arc-discharge route can occur without catalyst addition as shown by the work of Bacon in 1957 [47] and more recently by Iijima [1]. Despite the huge impact of Iijima's 1991 Nature paper, the fact that no catalyst was required was largely ignored or forgotten. More recently, a broad array of growth routes using pure carbon systems without any catalyst particle addition have emerged. Takagi et al. [48] have shown that SWNT can be grown in CVD using nano-diamond particles as catalysts. Moreover, nano-diamond particles do not suffer from coalescence and sintering difficulties. Exciting strategies to open fullerenes and use them as nucleation caps for SWNT have also been demonstrated. Once the fullerenes have been opened they are subjected to a CVD process and grow tubes [49,50]. The proposed growth mechanism is given in Figure 6. In a similar vein, the direct cloning of SWNT was shown by Liu and co-workers [51]. The formation of CNT on graphitic surfaces has also been demonstrated in various works by Lin et al. [52,53]. In these studies by Lin et al., it was shown that the early formation of amorphous nanohumps apparently serve as seed sites for the self-assembly of CNT.

Bottom Line: More recently, noble metals (e.g. Au) and poor metals (e.g. In, Pb) have been shown to also yield carbon nanotubes.All-carbon systems for carbon nanotube growth without any catalytic particles have also been demonstrated.These different growth systems are briefly examined in this article and serve to highlight the breadth of avenues available for carbon nanotube synthesis.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: IFW Dresden, P,O, Box 270116, 01069 Dresden, Germany. m.ruemmeli@ifw-dresden.de.

ABSTRACT
The initial development of carbon nanotube synthesis revolved heavily around the use of 3d valence transition metals such as Fe, Ni, and Co. More recently, noble metals (e.g. Au) and poor metals (e.g. In, Pb) have been shown to also yield carbon nanotubes. In addition, various ceramics and semiconductors can serve as catalytic particles suitable for tube formation and in some cases hybrid metal/metal oxide systems are possible. All-carbon systems for carbon nanotube growth without any catalytic particles have also been demonstrated. These different growth systems are briefly examined in this article and serve to highlight the breadth of avenues available for carbon nanotube synthesis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus