Limits...
Synthesis of carbon nanotubes with and without catalyst particles.

Rümmeli MH, Bachmatiuk A, Börrnert F, Schäffel F, Ibrahim I, Cendrowski K, Simha-Martynkova G, Plachá D, Borowiak-Palen E, Cuniberti G, Büchner B - Nanoscale Res Lett (2011)

Bottom Line: More recently, noble metals (e.g. Au) and poor metals (e.g. In, Pb) have been shown to also yield carbon nanotubes.All-carbon systems for carbon nanotube growth without any catalytic particles have also been demonstrated.These different growth systems are briefly examined in this article and serve to highlight the breadth of avenues available for carbon nanotube synthesis.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: IFW Dresden, P,O, Box 270116, 01069 Dresden, Germany. m.ruemmeli@ifw-dresden.de.

ABSTRACT
The initial development of carbon nanotube synthesis revolved heavily around the use of 3d valence transition metals such as Fe, Ni, and Co. More recently, noble metals (e.g. Au) and poor metals (e.g. In, Pb) have been shown to also yield carbon nanotubes. In addition, various ceramics and semiconductors can serve as catalytic particles suitable for tube formation and in some cases hybrid metal/metal oxide systems are possible. All-carbon systems for carbon nanotube growth without any catalytic particles have also been demonstrated. These different growth systems are briefly examined in this article and serve to highlight the breadth of avenues available for carbon nanotube synthesis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

TEM micrographs showing cross section view of a CNT root at the support surface. The (Co) catalyst particle resides in the core of the tube. The fringes at the base of the particle correspond to the (200) lattice fringes of cubic Co. The outer walls of the CNT align themselves with the lattice fringes of the α-alumina nanoplatelet. The middle micrograph is a magnification of the boxed region from the left micrograph. The right micrograph is a copy of the middle image with lines added to highlight the alignment of the graphitic planes with the rhombohedral (110) lattice fringes of the corundum support. Reprinted from Rümmeli et al. [43].
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3211370&req=5

Figure 5: TEM micrographs showing cross section view of a CNT root at the support surface. The (Co) catalyst particle resides in the core of the tube. The fringes at the base of the particle correspond to the (200) lattice fringes of cubic Co. The outer walls of the CNT align themselves with the lattice fringes of the α-alumina nanoplatelet. The middle micrograph is a magnification of the boxed region from the left micrograph. The right micrograph is a copy of the middle image with lines added to highlight the alignment of the graphitic planes with the rhombohedral (110) lattice fringes of the corundum support. Reprinted from Rümmeli et al. [43].

Mentions: It is then natural to query if oxides and the catalyst/support interface play a role in the case of CNT grown from oxide-supported metal catalyst clusters. To this end, we conducted various studies on CNT grown from Fe and Co clusters supported on alumina. Whilst the studies showed a good correlation between the initial catalyst size and the CNT outer diameter, after synthesis the catalyst particles are found to lie within the core of the CNT and are elongated [42]. In addition, the roots of the graphitic walls do not terminate on the metal particle but rather on the oxide support as shown in Figure 5[43]. This highlights the diversity with which carbon nanotubes can grow, in that some base growth modes show the CNT is rooted at the metal catalyst particle [44] much like tip growth grown CNT [45] or in other cases from the oxide support [42,43].


Synthesis of carbon nanotubes with and without catalyst particles.

Rümmeli MH, Bachmatiuk A, Börrnert F, Schäffel F, Ibrahim I, Cendrowski K, Simha-Martynkova G, Plachá D, Borowiak-Palen E, Cuniberti G, Büchner B - Nanoscale Res Lett (2011)

TEM micrographs showing cross section view of a CNT root at the support surface. The (Co) catalyst particle resides in the core of the tube. The fringes at the base of the particle correspond to the (200) lattice fringes of cubic Co. The outer walls of the CNT align themselves with the lattice fringes of the α-alumina nanoplatelet. The middle micrograph is a magnification of the boxed region from the left micrograph. The right micrograph is a copy of the middle image with lines added to highlight the alignment of the graphitic planes with the rhombohedral (110) lattice fringes of the corundum support. Reprinted from Rümmeli et al. [43].
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3211370&req=5

Figure 5: TEM micrographs showing cross section view of a CNT root at the support surface. The (Co) catalyst particle resides in the core of the tube. The fringes at the base of the particle correspond to the (200) lattice fringes of cubic Co. The outer walls of the CNT align themselves with the lattice fringes of the α-alumina nanoplatelet. The middle micrograph is a magnification of the boxed region from the left micrograph. The right micrograph is a copy of the middle image with lines added to highlight the alignment of the graphitic planes with the rhombohedral (110) lattice fringes of the corundum support. Reprinted from Rümmeli et al. [43].
Mentions: It is then natural to query if oxides and the catalyst/support interface play a role in the case of CNT grown from oxide-supported metal catalyst clusters. To this end, we conducted various studies on CNT grown from Fe and Co clusters supported on alumina. Whilst the studies showed a good correlation between the initial catalyst size and the CNT outer diameter, after synthesis the catalyst particles are found to lie within the core of the CNT and are elongated [42]. In addition, the roots of the graphitic walls do not terminate on the metal particle but rather on the oxide support as shown in Figure 5[43]. This highlights the diversity with which carbon nanotubes can grow, in that some base growth modes show the CNT is rooted at the metal catalyst particle [44] much like tip growth grown CNT [45] or in other cases from the oxide support [42,43].

Bottom Line: More recently, noble metals (e.g. Au) and poor metals (e.g. In, Pb) have been shown to also yield carbon nanotubes.All-carbon systems for carbon nanotube growth without any catalytic particles have also been demonstrated.These different growth systems are briefly examined in this article and serve to highlight the breadth of avenues available for carbon nanotube synthesis.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: IFW Dresden, P,O, Box 270116, 01069 Dresden, Germany. m.ruemmeli@ifw-dresden.de.

ABSTRACT
The initial development of carbon nanotube synthesis revolved heavily around the use of 3d valence transition metals such as Fe, Ni, and Co. More recently, noble metals (e.g. Au) and poor metals (e.g. In, Pb) have been shown to also yield carbon nanotubes. In addition, various ceramics and semiconductors can serve as catalytic particles suitable for tube formation and in some cases hybrid metal/metal oxide systems are possible. All-carbon systems for carbon nanotube growth without any catalytic particles have also been demonstrated. These different growth systems are briefly examined in this article and serve to highlight the breadth of avenues available for carbon nanotube synthesis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus