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Electrorheology of nanofiber suspensions.

Yin J, Zhao X - Nanoscale Res Lett (2011)

Bottom Line: Recent researches of using nanoparticles as the dispersal phase have led to new interest in the development of non-conventional ER fluids with improved performances.In this review, we especially focus on the recent researches on electrorheology of various nanofiber-based suspensions, including inorganic, organic, and inorganic/organic composite nanofibers.Our goal is to highlight the advantages of using anisotropic nanostructured materials as dispersal phases to improve ER performances.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Smart Materials Laboratory, Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710129, China. jbyin@nwpu.edu.cn.

ABSTRACT
Electrorheological (ER) fluid, which can be transformed rapidly from a fluid-like state to a solid-like state under an external electric field, is considered to be one of the most important smart fluids. However, conventional ER fluids based on microparticles are subjected to challenges in practical applications due to the lack of versatile performances. Recent researches of using nanoparticles as the dispersal phase have led to new interest in the development of non-conventional ER fluids with improved performances. In this review, we especially focus on the recent researches on electrorheology of various nanofiber-based suspensions, including inorganic, organic, and inorganic/organic composite nanofibers. Our goal is to highlight the advantages of using anisotropic nanostructured materials as dispersal phases to improve ER performances.

No MeSH data available.


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SEM images: as-made PANI nanofibers (a to c) and PANI@titania nanofibers (d to f). (The scale bar is 1 μm for (a) and (d), 100 nm for (b), (c), (e), and (f)). TEM images: as-made PANI nanofibers (g) and PANI@titania nanofibers (h). EELS analysis of PANI@titania nanofibers for C element (i) and Ti element (j). (The scale bar is 200 nm for (g) to (j)) [148].
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Figure 13: SEM images: as-made PANI nanofibers (a to c) and PANI@titania nanofibers (d to f). (The scale bar is 1 μm for (a) and (d), 100 nm for (b), (c), (e), and (f)). TEM images: as-made PANI nanofibers (g) and PANI@titania nanofibers (h). EELS analysis of PANI@titania nanofibers for C element (i) and Ti element (j). (The scale bar is 200 nm for (g) to (j)) [148].

Mentions: Having considered the advantages of core/shell composite ER particles, researchers have paid significant attention to inorganic/organic composite nanofibers for use as promising ER fluids recently [148-152]. By combining conducting polymer nanofibers and insulating inorganic dielectric, a kind of well-organized coaxial cable-like PANI@titania nanofibers was synthesized by a facile hydrolysis of tetrabutyl titanate in the presence of conducting PANI nanofibers for ER fluid application [148]. From Figure 13, it was noted that the PANI nanofiber core had a diameter of 150 to 200 nm and length of 0.5 to 3.0 μm. The thickness of sheath layer was about several tens of nanometers, depending on the amount of water used in the reaction. The sheath thickness increased with the increase of the amount of water. In the coating process of titania sheath, the chemical structure of PANI nanofibers was less changed because of no additional acid or alkali was added and thus the physical properties of PANI core was expected to maintain unchanged. Under electric fields, the suspension of PANI@titania nanofibers exhibited the lightly smaller yields stress compared to that of the suspension of pure dedoped PANI nanofibers, but its leaking current density was significantly lower than that of the latter. This was attributed to a sufficient electrical insulating effect of titania sheath to conducting PANI core (the dielectric constant of the PANI@titania nanofiber suspension was about 5.0 at 1 kHz) and thus the coaxial cable-like PANI@titania nanofibers could be used as a potential dispersal phase of ER fluid with low electric power consumption.


Electrorheology of nanofiber suspensions.

Yin J, Zhao X - Nanoscale Res Lett (2011)

SEM images: as-made PANI nanofibers (a to c) and PANI@titania nanofibers (d to f). (The scale bar is 1 μm for (a) and (d), 100 nm for (b), (c), (e), and (f)). TEM images: as-made PANI nanofibers (g) and PANI@titania nanofibers (h). EELS analysis of PANI@titania nanofibers for C element (i) and Ti element (j). (The scale bar is 200 nm for (g) to (j)) [148].
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3211318&req=5

Figure 13: SEM images: as-made PANI nanofibers (a to c) and PANI@titania nanofibers (d to f). (The scale bar is 1 μm for (a) and (d), 100 nm for (b), (c), (e), and (f)). TEM images: as-made PANI nanofibers (g) and PANI@titania nanofibers (h). EELS analysis of PANI@titania nanofibers for C element (i) and Ti element (j). (The scale bar is 200 nm for (g) to (j)) [148].
Mentions: Having considered the advantages of core/shell composite ER particles, researchers have paid significant attention to inorganic/organic composite nanofibers for use as promising ER fluids recently [148-152]. By combining conducting polymer nanofibers and insulating inorganic dielectric, a kind of well-organized coaxial cable-like PANI@titania nanofibers was synthesized by a facile hydrolysis of tetrabutyl titanate in the presence of conducting PANI nanofibers for ER fluid application [148]. From Figure 13, it was noted that the PANI nanofiber core had a diameter of 150 to 200 nm and length of 0.5 to 3.0 μm. The thickness of sheath layer was about several tens of nanometers, depending on the amount of water used in the reaction. The sheath thickness increased with the increase of the amount of water. In the coating process of titania sheath, the chemical structure of PANI nanofibers was less changed because of no additional acid or alkali was added and thus the physical properties of PANI core was expected to maintain unchanged. Under electric fields, the suspension of PANI@titania nanofibers exhibited the lightly smaller yields stress compared to that of the suspension of pure dedoped PANI nanofibers, but its leaking current density was significantly lower than that of the latter. This was attributed to a sufficient electrical insulating effect of titania sheath to conducting PANI core (the dielectric constant of the PANI@titania nanofiber suspension was about 5.0 at 1 kHz) and thus the coaxial cable-like PANI@titania nanofibers could be used as a potential dispersal phase of ER fluid with low electric power consumption.

Bottom Line: Recent researches of using nanoparticles as the dispersal phase have led to new interest in the development of non-conventional ER fluids with improved performances.In this review, we especially focus on the recent researches on electrorheology of various nanofiber-based suspensions, including inorganic, organic, and inorganic/organic composite nanofibers.Our goal is to highlight the advantages of using anisotropic nanostructured materials as dispersal phases to improve ER performances.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Smart Materials Laboratory, Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710129, China. jbyin@nwpu.edu.cn.

ABSTRACT
Electrorheological (ER) fluid, which can be transformed rapidly from a fluid-like state to a solid-like state under an external electric field, is considered to be one of the most important smart fluids. However, conventional ER fluids based on microparticles are subjected to challenges in practical applications due to the lack of versatile performances. Recent researches of using nanoparticles as the dispersal phase have led to new interest in the development of non-conventional ER fluids with improved performances. In this review, we especially focus on the recent researches on electrorheology of various nanofiber-based suspensions, including inorganic, organic, and inorganic/organic composite nanofibers. Our goal is to highlight the advantages of using anisotropic nanostructured materials as dispersal phases to improve ER performances.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus