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Fabrication of Nickel Nanostructure Arrays Via a Modified Nanosphere Lithography

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ABSTRACT

In this paper, we present a modified nanosphere lithographic scheme that is based on the self-assembly and electroforming techniques. The scheme was demonstrated to fabricate a nickel template of ordered nanobowl arrays together with a nickel nanostructure array-patterned glass substrate. The hemispherical nanobowls exhibit uniform sizes and smooth interior surfaces, and the shallow nanobowls with a flat bottom on the glass substrate are interconnected as a net structure with uniform thickness. A multiphysics model based on the level set method (LSM) was built up to understand this fabricating process by tracking the interface between the growing nickel and the electrolyte. The fabricated nickel nanobowl template can be used as a mold of long lifetime in soft lithography due to the high strength of nickel. The nanostructure–patterned glass substrate can be used in optical and magnetic devices due to their shape effects. This fabrication scheme can also be extended to a wide range of metals and alloys.

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SEM image of the patterned glass substrate with arrays of shallow nickel nanobowls, where some are still occupied by the PS nanospheres after THF etching.
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Figure 5: SEM image of the patterned glass substrate with arrays of shallow nickel nanobowls, where some are still occupied by the PS nanospheres after THF etching.

Mentions: The shallow nanobowl structure–patterned gold surface as shown in Figure 5 was also obtained after separating the top layer of master template of nanobowls shape. The flat bottom is due to the contact between PS nanospheres and the substrate. There are still some nanobowls occupied by the PS nanospheres left after THF etching process, which implies that the nanostructures can be used to select nanospheres of similar or smaller sizes for subsequent processing [24]. The SEM characterization shows that the nickel nanobowl structures with the flat bottom are about 100 nm thick. In fact, the thickness of nickel nanostructures growing around the bottom PS nanospheres is determined by the faradic current or the reductive ion flux passing through the interstitials between the nanospheres. When the electroforming process starts, nickel ions are reduced simultaneously on both the top surface of PS nanospheres and the gold-coated glass substrate. However, nickel ions transported to the interstitial spaces are gradually decreased due to the diminishing of opening between the PS nanospheres.


Fabrication of Nickel Nanostructure Arrays Via a Modified Nanosphere Lithography
SEM image of the patterned glass substrate with arrays of shallow nickel nanobowls, where some are still occupied by the PS nanospheres after THF etching.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3211311&req=5

Figure 5: SEM image of the patterned glass substrate with arrays of shallow nickel nanobowls, where some are still occupied by the PS nanospheres after THF etching.
Mentions: The shallow nanobowl structure–patterned gold surface as shown in Figure 5 was also obtained after separating the top layer of master template of nanobowls shape. The flat bottom is due to the contact between PS nanospheres and the substrate. There are still some nanobowls occupied by the PS nanospheres left after THF etching process, which implies that the nanostructures can be used to select nanospheres of similar or smaller sizes for subsequent processing [24]. The SEM characterization shows that the nickel nanobowl structures with the flat bottom are about 100 nm thick. In fact, the thickness of nickel nanostructures growing around the bottom PS nanospheres is determined by the faradic current or the reductive ion flux passing through the interstitials between the nanospheres. When the electroforming process starts, nickel ions are reduced simultaneously on both the top surface of PS nanospheres and the gold-coated glass substrate. However, nickel ions transported to the interstitial spaces are gradually decreased due to the diminishing of opening between the PS nanospheres.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we present a modified nanosphere lithographic scheme that is based on the self-assembly and electroforming techniques. The scheme was demonstrated to fabricate a nickel template of ordered nanobowl arrays together with a nickel nanostructure array-patterned glass substrate. The hemispherical nanobowls exhibit uniform sizes and smooth interior surfaces, and the shallow nanobowls with a flat bottom on the glass substrate are interconnected as a net structure with uniform thickness. A multiphysics model based on the level set method (LSM) was built up to understand this fabricating process by tracking the interface between the growing nickel and the electrolyte. The fabricated nickel nanobowl template can be used as a mold of long lifetime in soft lithography due to the high strength of nickel. The nanostructure–patterned glass substrate can be used in optical and magnetic devices due to their shape effects. This fabrication scheme can also be extended to a wide range of metals and alloys.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus