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Fabrication of Nickel Nanostructure Arrays Via a Modified Nanosphere Lithography

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ABSTRACT

In this paper, we present a modified nanosphere lithographic scheme that is based on the self-assembly and electroforming techniques. The scheme was demonstrated to fabricate a nickel template of ordered nanobowl arrays together with a nickel nanostructure array-patterned glass substrate. The hemispherical nanobowls exhibit uniform sizes and smooth interior surfaces, and the shallow nanobowls with a flat bottom on the glass substrate are interconnected as a net structure with uniform thickness. A multiphysics model based on the level set method (LSM) was built up to understand this fabricating process by tracking the interface between the growing nickel and the electrolyte. The fabricated nickel nanobowl template can be used as a mold of long lifetime in soft lithography due to the high strength of nickel. The nanostructure–patterned glass substrate can be used in optical and magnetic devices due to their shape effects. This fabrication scheme can also be extended to a wide range of metals and alloys.

No MeSH data available.


SEM image of a monolayer PS nanospheres after gold coating.
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Figure 2: SEM image of a monolayer PS nanospheres after gold coating.

Mentions: Figure 2 shows a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of a monolayer of close-packed PS nanospheres. The thickness of Au layer on the PS nanospheres was controlled within 50 nm in order to avoid blocking the openings between PS nanospheres. Experimental results and numerical modeling of gold film thickness on the top nanosphere surfaces indicate that it increases from the contacted points to the vertex of nanospheres as schematically shown in Figure 1b. Hence, the interstitial spacing between PS nanospheres is still left open to allow the electrolyte to reach the substrate, which makes it possible for electroforming to take place in the narrow gaps.


Fabrication of Nickel Nanostructure Arrays Via a Modified Nanosphere Lithography
SEM image of a monolayer PS nanospheres after gold coating.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3211311&req=5

Figure 2: SEM image of a monolayer PS nanospheres after gold coating.
Mentions: Figure 2 shows a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of a monolayer of close-packed PS nanospheres. The thickness of Au layer on the PS nanospheres was controlled within 50 nm in order to avoid blocking the openings between PS nanospheres. Experimental results and numerical modeling of gold film thickness on the top nanosphere surfaces indicate that it increases from the contacted points to the vertex of nanospheres as schematically shown in Figure 1b. Hence, the interstitial spacing between PS nanospheres is still left open to allow the electrolyte to reach the substrate, which makes it possible for electroforming to take place in the narrow gaps.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we present a modified nanosphere lithographic scheme that is based on the self-assembly and electroforming techniques. The scheme was demonstrated to fabricate a nickel template of ordered nanobowl arrays together with a nickel nanostructure array-patterned glass substrate. The hemispherical nanobowls exhibit uniform sizes and smooth interior surfaces, and the shallow nanobowls with a flat bottom on the glass substrate are interconnected as a net structure with uniform thickness. A multiphysics model based on the level set method (LSM) was built up to understand this fabricating process by tracking the interface between the growing nickel and the electrolyte. The fabricated nickel nanobowl template can be used as a mold of long lifetime in soft lithography due to the high strength of nickel. The nanostructure–patterned glass substrate can be used in optical and magnetic devices due to their shape effects. This fabrication scheme can also be extended to a wide range of metals and alloys.

No MeSH data available.