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Effect of particle size on the thermal conductivity of nanofluids containing metallic nanoparticles.

Warrier P, Teja A - Nanoscale Res Lett (2011)

Bottom Line: The model takes into account the decrease in thermal conductivity of metal nanoparticles with decreasing size.Although literature data could be correlated well using the model, the effect of the size of the particles on the effective thermal conductivity of the nanofluid could not be elucidated from these data.The results provide strong evidence that the decrease in the thermal conductivity of the solid with particle size must be considered when developing models for the thermal conductivity of nanofluids.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0100, USA. amyn.teja@chbe.gatech.edu.

ABSTRACT
A one-parameter model is presented for the thermal conductivity of nanofluids containing dispersed metallic nanoparticles. The model takes into account the decrease in thermal conductivity of metal nanoparticles with decreasing size. Although literature data could be correlated well using the model, the effect of the size of the particles on the effective thermal conductivity of the nanofluid could not be elucidated from these data. Therefore, new thermal conductivity measurements are reported for six nanofluids containing silver nanoparticles of different sizes and volume fractions. The results provide strong evidence that the decrease in the thermal conductivity of the solid with particle size must be considered when developing models for the thermal conductivity of nanofluids.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of particle size on the thermal conductivity of nanofluids containing silver nanoparticles. Points (1% black square, 2% black circle) represent experimental data of this work. Dashed (1% ― ―, 2% ----) and solid lines represent calculated values assuming size dependence and without size dependence, respectively
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Figure 3: Effect of particle size on the thermal conductivity of nanofluids containing silver nanoparticles. Points (1% black square, 2% black circle) represent experimental data of this work. Dashed (1% ― ―, 2% ----) and solid lines represent calculated values assuming size dependence and without size dependence, respectively

Mentions: Table 3 gives our measured values of the thermal conductivity enhancement for silver nanofluids. As noted previously, each data point represents the average of five measurements at a specific concentration and room temperature. The experimental data along with calculations using Equation 6 with and without considering the size dependence are presented in Figure 3. First, the size dependent model (Equations 3, 5, and 6 was used to correlate the data and a value of n = 0.088 was found to give the best fit with an AAD = 2.01%. Then, the same value of n was used in the size independent model (Equation 6) and resulted in an AAD = 3.64%. Figure 3 appears to confirm that the thermal conductivity of the nanofluid decreases with decreasing particle size, although the results are not conclusive. This could be due to the higher than expected thermal conductivity of nanofluids containing 20 nm silver particles resulting from aggregation (Figure 2a). Since the dry 20 nm particles were highly aggregated when purchased, we consider it likely that they are aggregated in the dispersion despite being subjected to sonication. In an aggregated structure, a fraction of the particles form a conductive pathway, which could result in enhanced conduction [26]. This is supported by numerical simulations and molecular dynamics studies [27-29]. On the other hand, the value of n = 0.088 obtained by fitting our data implies that the extent of aggregation was probably small and most particles were randomly dispersed in the fluid. Values of n close to ±1 in Table 2, obtained by fitting literature data, do not appear to be physically reasonable because they imply series or parallel alignment of particles.


Effect of particle size on the thermal conductivity of nanofluids containing metallic nanoparticles.

Warrier P, Teja A - Nanoscale Res Lett (2011)

Effect of particle size on the thermal conductivity of nanofluids containing silver nanoparticles. Points (1% black square, 2% black circle) represent experimental data of this work. Dashed (1% ― ―, 2% ----) and solid lines represent calculated values assuming size dependence and without size dependence, respectively
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3211308&req=5

Figure 3: Effect of particle size on the thermal conductivity of nanofluids containing silver nanoparticles. Points (1% black square, 2% black circle) represent experimental data of this work. Dashed (1% ― ―, 2% ----) and solid lines represent calculated values assuming size dependence and without size dependence, respectively
Mentions: Table 3 gives our measured values of the thermal conductivity enhancement for silver nanofluids. As noted previously, each data point represents the average of five measurements at a specific concentration and room temperature. The experimental data along with calculations using Equation 6 with and without considering the size dependence are presented in Figure 3. First, the size dependent model (Equations 3, 5, and 6 was used to correlate the data and a value of n = 0.088 was found to give the best fit with an AAD = 2.01%. Then, the same value of n was used in the size independent model (Equation 6) and resulted in an AAD = 3.64%. Figure 3 appears to confirm that the thermal conductivity of the nanofluid decreases with decreasing particle size, although the results are not conclusive. This could be due to the higher than expected thermal conductivity of nanofluids containing 20 nm silver particles resulting from aggregation (Figure 2a). Since the dry 20 nm particles were highly aggregated when purchased, we consider it likely that they are aggregated in the dispersion despite being subjected to sonication. In an aggregated structure, a fraction of the particles form a conductive pathway, which could result in enhanced conduction [26]. This is supported by numerical simulations and molecular dynamics studies [27-29]. On the other hand, the value of n = 0.088 obtained by fitting our data implies that the extent of aggregation was probably small and most particles were randomly dispersed in the fluid. Values of n close to ±1 in Table 2, obtained by fitting literature data, do not appear to be physically reasonable because they imply series or parallel alignment of particles.

Bottom Line: The model takes into account the decrease in thermal conductivity of metal nanoparticles with decreasing size.Although literature data could be correlated well using the model, the effect of the size of the particles on the effective thermal conductivity of the nanofluid could not be elucidated from these data.The results provide strong evidence that the decrease in the thermal conductivity of the solid with particle size must be considered when developing models for the thermal conductivity of nanofluids.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0100, USA. amyn.teja@chbe.gatech.edu.

ABSTRACT
A one-parameter model is presented for the thermal conductivity of nanofluids containing dispersed metallic nanoparticles. The model takes into account the decrease in thermal conductivity of metal nanoparticles with decreasing size. Although literature data could be correlated well using the model, the effect of the size of the particles on the effective thermal conductivity of the nanofluid could not be elucidated from these data. Therefore, new thermal conductivity measurements are reported for six nanofluids containing silver nanoparticles of different sizes and volume fractions. The results provide strong evidence that the decrease in the thermal conductivity of the solid with particle size must be considered when developing models for the thermal conductivity of nanofluids.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus