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Experimental study of combustion characteristics of nanoscale metal and metal oxide additives in biofuel (ethanol).

Jones M, Li CH, Afjeh A, Peterson G - Nanoscale Res Lett (2011)

Bottom Line: N-Al volume fractions of 1 and 3% did not show enhancement in the average volumetric HoC, but higher volume fractions of 5, 7, and 10% increased the volumetric HoC by 5.82, 8.65, and 15.31%, respectively.N-Al2O3 and heavily passivated n-Al additives did not participate in combustion reactively, and there was no contribution from Al2O3 to the HoC in the tests.A combustion model that utilized Chemical Equilibrium with Applications was conducted as well and was shown to be in good agreement with the experimental results.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Mechanical, Industrial, and Manufacturing Engineering University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606, USA. calvin.li@villanova.edu.

ABSTRACT
An experimental investigation of the combustion behavior of nano-aluminum (n-Al) and nano-aluminum oxide (n-Al2O3) particles stably suspended in biofuel (ethanol) as a secondary energy carrier was conducted. The heat of combustion (HoC) was studied using a modified static bomb calorimeter system. Combustion element composition and surface morphology were evaluated using a SEM/EDS system. N-Al and n-Al2O3 particles of 50- and 36-nm diameters, respectively, were utilized in this investigation. Combustion experiments were performed with volume fractions of 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10% for n-Al, and 0.5, 1, 3, and 5% for n-Al2O3. The results indicate that the amount of heat released from ethanol combustion increases almost linearly with n-Al concentration. N-Al volume fractions of 1 and 3% did not show enhancement in the average volumetric HoC, but higher volume fractions of 5, 7, and 10% increased the volumetric HoC by 5.82, 8.65, and 15.31%, respectively. N-Al2O3 and heavily passivated n-Al additives did not participate in combustion reactively, and there was no contribution from Al2O3 to the HoC in the tests. A combustion model that utilized Chemical Equilibrium with Applications was conducted as well and was shown to be in good agreement with the experimental results.

No MeSH data available.


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SEM image of EDS response after combustion for Eth + 5% n-Al.
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Figure 6: SEM image of EDS response after combustion for Eth + 5% n-Al.

Mentions: It was clearly illustrated in Figure 4a that the volumetric HoCs were more than 2 MJ/L lower than that of n-Al samples at equivalent volume fractions of 1 and 3%. This confirmed that the volumetric HoCs of Eth + n-Al samples at 1 and 3% were lower than that of pure ethanol due to oxidization layers. An EDS technique was performed on the residual combustion products for Eth + 5% n-Al and n-Al2O3, and it was determined that in both cases the Al:O atomic ratio was approximately 30:60, corresponding to the Al2O3 atomic composition (shown in Figures 5, 6, and 7).


Experimental study of combustion characteristics of nanoscale metal and metal oxide additives in biofuel (ethanol).

Jones M, Li CH, Afjeh A, Peterson G - Nanoscale Res Lett (2011)

SEM image of EDS response after combustion for Eth + 5% n-Al.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3211307&req=5

Figure 6: SEM image of EDS response after combustion for Eth + 5% n-Al.
Mentions: It was clearly illustrated in Figure 4a that the volumetric HoCs were more than 2 MJ/L lower than that of n-Al samples at equivalent volume fractions of 1 and 3%. This confirmed that the volumetric HoCs of Eth + n-Al samples at 1 and 3% were lower than that of pure ethanol due to oxidization layers. An EDS technique was performed on the residual combustion products for Eth + 5% n-Al and n-Al2O3, and it was determined that in both cases the Al:O atomic ratio was approximately 30:60, corresponding to the Al2O3 atomic composition (shown in Figures 5, 6, and 7).

Bottom Line: N-Al volume fractions of 1 and 3% did not show enhancement in the average volumetric HoC, but higher volume fractions of 5, 7, and 10% increased the volumetric HoC by 5.82, 8.65, and 15.31%, respectively.N-Al2O3 and heavily passivated n-Al additives did not participate in combustion reactively, and there was no contribution from Al2O3 to the HoC in the tests.A combustion model that utilized Chemical Equilibrium with Applications was conducted as well and was shown to be in good agreement with the experimental results.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Mechanical, Industrial, and Manufacturing Engineering University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606, USA. calvin.li@villanova.edu.

ABSTRACT
An experimental investigation of the combustion behavior of nano-aluminum (n-Al) and nano-aluminum oxide (n-Al2O3) particles stably suspended in biofuel (ethanol) as a secondary energy carrier was conducted. The heat of combustion (HoC) was studied using a modified static bomb calorimeter system. Combustion element composition and surface morphology were evaluated using a SEM/EDS system. N-Al and n-Al2O3 particles of 50- and 36-nm diameters, respectively, were utilized in this investigation. Combustion experiments were performed with volume fractions of 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10% for n-Al, and 0.5, 1, 3, and 5% for n-Al2O3. The results indicate that the amount of heat released from ethanol combustion increases almost linearly with n-Al concentration. N-Al volume fractions of 1 and 3% did not show enhancement in the average volumetric HoC, but higher volume fractions of 5, 7, and 10% increased the volumetric HoC by 5.82, 8.65, and 15.31%, respectively. N-Al2O3 and heavily passivated n-Al additives did not participate in combustion reactively, and there was no contribution from Al2O3 to the HoC in the tests. A combustion model that utilized Chemical Equilibrium with Applications was conducted as well and was shown to be in good agreement with the experimental results.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus