Limits...
Light-emitting diodes enhanced by localized surface plasmon resonance.

Gu X, Qiu T, Zhang W, Chu PK - Nanoscale Res Lett (2011)

Bottom Line: The mechanism is based on the energy coupling effect between the emitted photons from the semiconductor and metallic nanoparticles fabricated by nanotechnology.In this review, we describe the mechanism of this coupling effect and summarize the common fabrication techniques.The prospect, including the potential to replace fluorescent/incandescent lighting devices as well as applications to flat panel displays and optoelectronics, and future challenges with regard to the design of metallic nanostructures and fabrication techniques are discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physics, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, People's Republic of China. tqiu@seu.edu.cn.

ABSTRACT
Light-emitting diodes [LEDs] are of particular interest recently as their performance is approaching fluorescent/incandescent tubes. Moreover, their energy-saving property is attracting many researchers because of the huge energy crisis we are facing. Among all methods intending to enhance the efficiency and intensity of a conventional LED, localized surface plasmon resonance is a promising way. The mechanism is based on the energy coupling effect between the emitted photons from the semiconductor and metallic nanoparticles fabricated by nanotechnology. In this review, we describe the mechanism of this coupling effect and summarize the common fabrication techniques. The prospect, including the potential to replace fluorescent/incandescent lighting devices as well as applications to flat panel displays and optoelectronics, and future challenges with regard to the design of metallic nanostructures and fabrication techniques are discussed.

No MeSH data available.


A future electrically driven Si laser diode with two highly reflective mirrors. The mirrors act as the optical cavity to amplify light emission. Reproduced from [79]. Copyright Nature Publishing Group, 2000.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3211255&req=5

Figure 11: A future electrically driven Si laser diode with two highly reflective mirrors. The mirrors act as the optical cavity to amplify light emission. Reproduced from [79]. Copyright Nature Publishing Group, 2000.

Mentions: Digital data transport in state-of-the-art microprocessors encompassing ultrafast transistors requires high-speed interconnects, and optical components like optical fibers can satisfy the needs. Despite a capacity 1,000 times larger than their electronic counterparts, these dielectric interconnects are limited in size by the fundamental laws of diffraction to the order of wavelengths. This means that the size must be at least one order of magnitude larger than the electronic elements, making it rather difficult to integrate electronic and photonic devices into the same optoelectronic chip [76,77]. Surface plasmon [SP] is among the most promising substitutes for optical fibers. Here, nanometer-scaled structures can serve as the SP waveguides, modulators, and switches in a communication system. Si-based laser diodes are promising light sources to generate SP in these optoelectronic chips because of the low cost, ease of integration into traditional integrated circuit technologies, and large-area production. However, as indirect band-gap materials, the IQE of Si emitters is very low. Methods to enhance the efficiency and to increase the visible components in the Si emission spectrum include the introduction of porous Si and quantum dots which have raised the IQE of Si-based light emitters to 1%. Since the report of high-efficiency visible PL from Si quantum dots in 2000 [78,79], the EL properties of Si QDs have been extensively investigated in an attempt to produce an all-silicon laser diode, as shown in Figure 11[80-82]. Kim et al. [42] have developed a LED structure with a Ag layer containing Ag NPs between the silicon nitride layer containing the Si QDs and Si substrate. This device yields an EL intensity that is 434% larger than that without NPs. The enhancement is attributed to the enhanced IQE, which is expected because the LSPR-induced enhancement is more substantial if the original IQE is relatively low. A Si-on-insulator LED with higher efficiency rendered by Ag NPs has been reported by Pillai et al. [48]. By adopting a simple deposition process, an eightfold efficiency increase at 900 nm stemming from LEE enhancement is achieved. Although commercial all-Si laser diodes have not yet been made, there is great potential and much research is being conducted in this area.


Light-emitting diodes enhanced by localized surface plasmon resonance.

Gu X, Qiu T, Zhang W, Chu PK - Nanoscale Res Lett (2011)

A future electrically driven Si laser diode with two highly reflective mirrors. The mirrors act as the optical cavity to amplify light emission. Reproduced from [79]. Copyright Nature Publishing Group, 2000.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3211255&req=5

Figure 11: A future electrically driven Si laser diode with two highly reflective mirrors. The mirrors act as the optical cavity to amplify light emission. Reproduced from [79]. Copyright Nature Publishing Group, 2000.
Mentions: Digital data transport in state-of-the-art microprocessors encompassing ultrafast transistors requires high-speed interconnects, and optical components like optical fibers can satisfy the needs. Despite a capacity 1,000 times larger than their electronic counterparts, these dielectric interconnects are limited in size by the fundamental laws of diffraction to the order of wavelengths. This means that the size must be at least one order of magnitude larger than the electronic elements, making it rather difficult to integrate electronic and photonic devices into the same optoelectronic chip [76,77]. Surface plasmon [SP] is among the most promising substitutes for optical fibers. Here, nanometer-scaled structures can serve as the SP waveguides, modulators, and switches in a communication system. Si-based laser diodes are promising light sources to generate SP in these optoelectronic chips because of the low cost, ease of integration into traditional integrated circuit technologies, and large-area production. However, as indirect band-gap materials, the IQE of Si emitters is very low. Methods to enhance the efficiency and to increase the visible components in the Si emission spectrum include the introduction of porous Si and quantum dots which have raised the IQE of Si-based light emitters to 1%. Since the report of high-efficiency visible PL from Si quantum dots in 2000 [78,79], the EL properties of Si QDs have been extensively investigated in an attempt to produce an all-silicon laser diode, as shown in Figure 11[80-82]. Kim et al. [42] have developed a LED structure with a Ag layer containing Ag NPs between the silicon nitride layer containing the Si QDs and Si substrate. This device yields an EL intensity that is 434% larger than that without NPs. The enhancement is attributed to the enhanced IQE, which is expected because the LSPR-induced enhancement is more substantial if the original IQE is relatively low. A Si-on-insulator LED with higher efficiency rendered by Ag NPs has been reported by Pillai et al. [48]. By adopting a simple deposition process, an eightfold efficiency increase at 900 nm stemming from LEE enhancement is achieved. Although commercial all-Si laser diodes have not yet been made, there is great potential and much research is being conducted in this area.

Bottom Line: The mechanism is based on the energy coupling effect between the emitted photons from the semiconductor and metallic nanoparticles fabricated by nanotechnology.In this review, we describe the mechanism of this coupling effect and summarize the common fabrication techniques.The prospect, including the potential to replace fluorescent/incandescent lighting devices as well as applications to flat panel displays and optoelectronics, and future challenges with regard to the design of metallic nanostructures and fabrication techniques are discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physics, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, People's Republic of China. tqiu@seu.edu.cn.

ABSTRACT
Light-emitting diodes [LEDs] are of particular interest recently as their performance is approaching fluorescent/incandescent tubes. Moreover, their energy-saving property is attracting many researchers because of the huge energy crisis we are facing. Among all methods intending to enhance the efficiency and intensity of a conventional LED, localized surface plasmon resonance is a promising way. The mechanism is based on the energy coupling effect between the emitted photons from the semiconductor and metallic nanoparticles fabricated by nanotechnology. In this review, we describe the mechanism of this coupling effect and summarize the common fabrication techniques. The prospect, including the potential to replace fluorescent/incandescent lighting devices as well as applications to flat panel displays and optoelectronics, and future challenges with regard to the design of metallic nanostructures and fabrication techniques are discussed.

No MeSH data available.