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Assessment of Influence of Magnetic Forces on Aggregation of Zero-valent Iron Nanoparticles

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ABSTRACT

Aggregation of zero-valent nanoparticles in groundwater is influenced by several physical phenomena. The article shortly introduces preceding works in modeling of aggregation of small particles including influence of sedimentation, velocity profile of water, heat fluctuations, and surface electric charge. A brief description of inclusion of magnetic forces into the model of aggregation follows. Rate of influence of the magnetic forces on the aggregation depends on the magnitude of magnetization of the particles, radius of nanoparticles, size of the aggregates, and their concentration in the solution. Presented results show that the magnetic forces have significant influence on aggregation especially of the smallest iron particles.

No MeSH data available.


Hysteresis loop of the zero-valent iron nanoparticles for temperature of 300 K measured with magnetometer MPMS XL by Jiří Tuček at the Palacký University Olomouc.
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Figure 2: Hysteresis loop of the zero-valent iron nanoparticles for temperature of 300 K measured with magnetometer MPMS XL by Jiří Tuček at the Palacký University Olomouc.

Mentions: The iron particles NANOFER that are used for the remedial intervention were measured by magnetometer MPMS XL, an equipment based on the SQUID effect (Superconducting quantum interference device), owned by the Palacký University Olomouc, Czech Republic. The iron particles are ferromagnetic, a hysteresis loop of the iron particles measured by SQUID is in Figure 2. That is the reason why it is necessary to include the influence of the magnetic forces among particles to the model of aggregation of the particles. However, it is a very complicated process which cannot be described analytically. That is why only the description of the magnetic forces between two particles is shown in this paper. Although it is not a sufficient model, it can be used for determination of something what we could call "effective range" of the magnetic forces. Also the limits of the sizes of the magnetic forces can be determined. It can be used for the assessment of the aggregation of the particles depending on their concentration.


Assessment of Influence of Magnetic Forces on Aggregation of Zero-valent Iron Nanoparticles
Hysteresis loop of the zero-valent iron nanoparticles for temperature of 300 K measured with magnetometer MPMS XL by Jiří Tuček at the Palacký University Olomouc.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3211143&req=5

Figure 2: Hysteresis loop of the zero-valent iron nanoparticles for temperature of 300 K measured with magnetometer MPMS XL by Jiří Tuček at the Palacký University Olomouc.
Mentions: The iron particles NANOFER that are used for the remedial intervention were measured by magnetometer MPMS XL, an equipment based on the SQUID effect (Superconducting quantum interference device), owned by the Palacký University Olomouc, Czech Republic. The iron particles are ferromagnetic, a hysteresis loop of the iron particles measured by SQUID is in Figure 2. That is the reason why it is necessary to include the influence of the magnetic forces among particles to the model of aggregation of the particles. However, it is a very complicated process which cannot be described analytically. That is why only the description of the magnetic forces between two particles is shown in this paper. Although it is not a sufficient model, it can be used for determination of something what we could call "effective range" of the magnetic forces. Also the limits of the sizes of the magnetic forces can be determined. It can be used for the assessment of the aggregation of the particles depending on their concentration.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Aggregation of zero-valent nanoparticles in groundwater is influenced by several physical phenomena. The article shortly introduces preceding works in modeling of aggregation of small particles including influence of sedimentation, velocity profile of water, heat fluctuations, and surface electric charge. A brief description of inclusion of magnetic forces into the model of aggregation follows. Rate of influence of the magnetic forces on the aggregation depends on the magnitude of magnetization of the particles, radius of nanoparticles, size of the aggregates, and their concentration in the solution. Presented results show that the magnetic forces have significant influence on aggregation especially of the smallest iron particles.

No MeSH data available.