Limits...
Morphological and genetic divergence in Swedish postglacial stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) populations.

Mobley KB, Lussetti D, Johansson F, Englund G, Bokma F - BMC Evol. Biol. (2011)

Bottom Line: Inland populations from lakes without predators generally have larger body size, and smaller spine length relative to body size, suggesting systematic reduction in spine length.Taken together the results suggest that predation plays a role in shaping morphological variation among isolated inland populations.However, we cannot rule out that a causal relationship between predation versus other genetic and environmental influences on phenotypic variation not measured in this study exists, and this warrants further investigation.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Linnaeus väg 6, Umeå University, 90187 Sweden. mobley@evolbio.mpg.de

ABSTRACT

Background: An important objective of evolutionary biology is to understand the processes that govern phenotypic variation in natural populations. We assessed patterns of morphological and genetic divergence among coastal and inland lake populations of nine-spined stickleback in northern Sweden. Coastal populations are either from the Baltic coast (n = 5) or from nearby coastal lakes (n = 3) that became isolated from the Baltic Sea (< 100 years before present, ybp). Inland populations are from freshwater lakes that became isolated from the Baltic approximately 10,000 ybp; either single species lakes without predators (n = 5), or lakes with a recent history of predation (n = 5) from stocking of salmonid predators (~50 ybp).

Results: Coastal populations showed little variation in 11 morphological traits and had longer spines per unit of body length than inland populations. Inland populations were larger, on average, and showed greater morphological variation than coastal populations. A principal component analysis (PCA) across all populations revealed two major morphological axes related to spine length (PC1, 47.7% variation) and body size (PC2, 32.9% variation). Analysis of PCA scores showed marked similarity in coastal (Baltic coast and coastal lake) populations. PCA scores indicate that inland populations with predators have higher within-group variance in spine length and lower within-group variance in body size than inland populations without predators. Estimates of within-group PST (a proxy for QST) from PCA scores are similar to estimates of FST for coastal lake populations but PST >FST for Baltic coast populations. PST >FST for PC1 and PC2 for inland predator and inland no predator populations, with the exception that PST

Conclusions: Baltic coast and coastal lake populations show little morphological and genetic variation within and between groups suggesting that these populations experience similar ecological conditions and that time since isolation of coastal lakes has been insufficient to demonstrate divergent morphology in coastal lake populations. Inland populations, on the other hand, showed much greater morphological and genetic variation characteristic of long periods of isolation. Inland populations from lakes without predators generally have larger body size, and smaller spine length relative to body size, suggesting systematic reduction in spine length. In contrast, inland populations with predators exhibit a wider range of spine lengths relative to body size suggesting that this trait is responding to local predation pressure differently among these populations. Taken together the results suggest that predation plays a role in shaping morphological variation among isolated inland populations. However, we cannot rule out that a causal relationship between predation versus other genetic and environmental influences on phenotypic variation not measured in this study exists, and this warrants further investigation.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Genetic and morphological distance measures. A) Neighbour-joining tree showing the genetic relationships between populations of nine-spined sticklebacks based on Nei's genetic distance (DA) across all nine microsatellite loci. Percentage of bootstrap support > 50% for 10,000 replicates are shown. B) Cluster analysis based on population means of morphological characters. Mean standard length of fish (fish diagram) and a representative spine length estimate (mean pelvic spine length, upside down triangle) are presented and scaled proportionately for reference. Site abbreviations and groups are defined in Table 1. *The BN population lack pelvic spines.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3198969&req=5

Figure 2: Genetic and morphological distance measures. A) Neighbour-joining tree showing the genetic relationships between populations of nine-spined sticklebacks based on Nei's genetic distance (DA) across all nine microsatellite loci. Percentage of bootstrap support > 50% for 10,000 replicates are shown. B) Cluster analysis based on population means of morphological characters. Mean standard length of fish (fish diagram) and a representative spine length estimate (mean pelvic spine length, upside down triangle) are presented and scaled proportionately for reference. Site abbreviations and groups are defined in Table 1. *The BN population lack pelvic spines.

Mentions: A neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree using DA distances based on all microsatellite data demonstrates that Baltic coast and coastal lakes cluster together and are genetically more similar to one another than inland populations with or without predators (Figure 2a). Inland populations showed greater genetic distances, consistent with longer periods of isolation from coastal populations and each other (Figure 2a). Bootstrap support for the branching order of the inland populations is poor, which is in line with our expectation that these populations all originated within a short period of time after the last glacial retreat.


Morphological and genetic divergence in Swedish postglacial stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) populations.

Mobley KB, Lussetti D, Johansson F, Englund G, Bokma F - BMC Evol. Biol. (2011)

Genetic and morphological distance measures. A) Neighbour-joining tree showing the genetic relationships between populations of nine-spined sticklebacks based on Nei's genetic distance (DA) across all nine microsatellite loci. Percentage of bootstrap support > 50% for 10,000 replicates are shown. B) Cluster analysis based on population means of morphological characters. Mean standard length of fish (fish diagram) and a representative spine length estimate (mean pelvic spine length, upside down triangle) are presented and scaled proportionately for reference. Site abbreviations and groups are defined in Table 1. *The BN population lack pelvic spines.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3198969&req=5

Figure 2: Genetic and morphological distance measures. A) Neighbour-joining tree showing the genetic relationships between populations of nine-spined sticklebacks based on Nei's genetic distance (DA) across all nine microsatellite loci. Percentage of bootstrap support > 50% for 10,000 replicates are shown. B) Cluster analysis based on population means of morphological characters. Mean standard length of fish (fish diagram) and a representative spine length estimate (mean pelvic spine length, upside down triangle) are presented and scaled proportionately for reference. Site abbreviations and groups are defined in Table 1. *The BN population lack pelvic spines.
Mentions: A neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree using DA distances based on all microsatellite data demonstrates that Baltic coast and coastal lakes cluster together and are genetically more similar to one another than inland populations with or without predators (Figure 2a). Inland populations showed greater genetic distances, consistent with longer periods of isolation from coastal populations and each other (Figure 2a). Bootstrap support for the branching order of the inland populations is poor, which is in line with our expectation that these populations all originated within a short period of time after the last glacial retreat.

Bottom Line: Inland populations from lakes without predators generally have larger body size, and smaller spine length relative to body size, suggesting systematic reduction in spine length.Taken together the results suggest that predation plays a role in shaping morphological variation among isolated inland populations.However, we cannot rule out that a causal relationship between predation versus other genetic and environmental influences on phenotypic variation not measured in this study exists, and this warrants further investigation.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Linnaeus väg 6, Umeå University, 90187 Sweden. mobley@evolbio.mpg.de

ABSTRACT

Background: An important objective of evolutionary biology is to understand the processes that govern phenotypic variation in natural populations. We assessed patterns of morphological and genetic divergence among coastal and inland lake populations of nine-spined stickleback in northern Sweden. Coastal populations are either from the Baltic coast (n = 5) or from nearby coastal lakes (n = 3) that became isolated from the Baltic Sea (< 100 years before present, ybp). Inland populations are from freshwater lakes that became isolated from the Baltic approximately 10,000 ybp; either single species lakes without predators (n = 5), or lakes with a recent history of predation (n = 5) from stocking of salmonid predators (~50 ybp).

Results: Coastal populations showed little variation in 11 morphological traits and had longer spines per unit of body length than inland populations. Inland populations were larger, on average, and showed greater morphological variation than coastal populations. A principal component analysis (PCA) across all populations revealed two major morphological axes related to spine length (PC1, 47.7% variation) and body size (PC2, 32.9% variation). Analysis of PCA scores showed marked similarity in coastal (Baltic coast and coastal lake) populations. PCA scores indicate that inland populations with predators have higher within-group variance in spine length and lower within-group variance in body size than inland populations without predators. Estimates of within-group PST (a proxy for QST) from PCA scores are similar to estimates of FST for coastal lake populations but PST >FST for Baltic coast populations. PST >FST for PC1 and PC2 for inland predator and inland no predator populations, with the exception that PST

Conclusions: Baltic coast and coastal lake populations show little morphological and genetic variation within and between groups suggesting that these populations experience similar ecological conditions and that time since isolation of coastal lakes has been insufficient to demonstrate divergent morphology in coastal lake populations. Inland populations, on the other hand, showed much greater morphological and genetic variation characteristic of long periods of isolation. Inland populations from lakes without predators generally have larger body size, and smaller spine length relative to body size, suggesting systematic reduction in spine length. In contrast, inland populations with predators exhibit a wider range of spine lengths relative to body size suggesting that this trait is responding to local predation pressure differently among these populations. Taken together the results suggest that predation plays a role in shaping morphological variation among isolated inland populations. However, we cannot rule out that a causal relationship between predation versus other genetic and environmental influences on phenotypic variation not measured in this study exists, and this warrants further investigation.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus