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Y-chromosome phylogeny in the evolutionary net of chamois (genus Rupicapra).

Pérez T, Hammer SE, Albornoz J, Domínguez A - BMC Evol. Biol. (2011)

Bottom Line: The SRY promoter sequences of two samples of Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia) were also determined and compared with the sequences of Bovidae available in the GenBank.The diversity of Y-chromosomes in chamois is very low.The differences in patterns of variation among Y-chromosome, mtDNA and biparental microsatellites reflect the evolutionary characteristics of the different markers as well as the effects of sex-biased dispersal and species phylogeography.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Biología Funcional, Genética, Universidad de Oviedo, Julián Clavería 6, 33006 Oviedo, Spain.

ABSTRACT

Background: The chamois, distributed over most of the medium to high altitude mountain ranges of southern Eurasia, provides an excellent model for exploring the effects of historical and evolutionary events on diversification. Populations have been grouped into two species, Rupicapra pyrenaica from southwestern Europe and R. rupicapra from eastern Europe. The study of matrilineal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and biparentally inherited microsatellites showed that the two species are paraphyletic and indicated alternate events of population contraction and dispersal-hybridization in the diversification of chamois. Here we investigate the pattern of variation of the Y-chromosome to obtain information on the patrilineal phylogenetic position of the genus Rupicapra and on the male-specific dispersal of chamois across Europe.

Results: We analyzed the Y-chromosome of 87 males covering the distribution range of the Rupicapra genus. We sequenced a fragment of the SRY gene promoter and characterized the male specific microsatellites UMN2303 and SRYM18. The SRY promoter sequences of two samples of Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia) were also determined and compared with the sequences of Bovidae available in the GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis of the alignment showed the clustering of Rupicapra with Capra and the Ammotragus sequence obtained in this study, different from the previously reported sequence of Ammotragus which groups with Ovis. Within Rupicapra, the combined data define 10 Y-chromosome haplotypes forming two haplogroups, which concur with taxonomic classification, instead of the three clades formed for mtDNA and nuclear microsatellites. The variation shows a west-to-east geographical cline of ancestral to derived alleles.

Conclusions: The phylogeny of the SRY-promoter shows an association between Rupicapra and Capra. The position of Ammotragus needs a reinvestigation. The study of ancestral and derived characters in the Y-chromosome suggests that, contrary to the presumed Asian origin, the paternal lineage of chamois originated in the Mediterranean, most probably in the Iberian Peninsula, and dispersed eastwards through serial funding events during the glacial-interglacial cycles of the Quaternary. The diversity of Y-chromosomes in chamois is very low. The differences in patterns of variation among Y-chromosome, mtDNA and biparental microsatellites reflect the evolutionary characteristics of the different markers as well as the effects of sex-biased dispersal and species phylogeography.

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Geographic distribution of the subspecies of the genus Rupicapra. Sampling sites are indicated by circles. The map was modified from the distribution map on the IUCN Red List [73].
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Figure 1: Geographic distribution of the subspecies of the genus Rupicapra. Sampling sites are indicated by circles. The map was modified from the distribution map on the IUCN Red List [73].

Mentions: The study of chamois (Rupicapra spp.) allows exploring the effect of historical and evolutionary events on diversification. It is distributed over most of the medium to high altitude mountain ranges of southern Eurasia (Figure 1). At present, chamois populations are classified into two species, R. pyrenaica and R. rupicapra [9], on the basis of morphological and behavioral characters: Rupicapra pyrenaica (with the subspecies parva, pyrenaica and ornata) from southwestern Europe, and R. rupicapra (with the subspecies cartusiana, rupicapra, tatrica, carpatica, balcanica, asiatica and caucasica) from central and southeastern Europe and western Asia [10]. Analysis of genetic variation in a limited number of subspecies for allozyme loci [11], minisatellites [12], RFLPs of mitochondrial DNA [13] and the major histocompatibility complex [14,15] provided some support for this classification. However, the nominal species are paraphyletic for mtDNA [16,17].


Y-chromosome phylogeny in the evolutionary net of chamois (genus Rupicapra).

Pérez T, Hammer SE, Albornoz J, Domínguez A - BMC Evol. Biol. (2011)

Geographic distribution of the subspecies of the genus Rupicapra. Sampling sites are indicated by circles. The map was modified from the distribution map on the IUCN Red List [73].
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3198967&req=5

Figure 1: Geographic distribution of the subspecies of the genus Rupicapra. Sampling sites are indicated by circles. The map was modified from the distribution map on the IUCN Red List [73].
Mentions: The study of chamois (Rupicapra spp.) allows exploring the effect of historical and evolutionary events on diversification. It is distributed over most of the medium to high altitude mountain ranges of southern Eurasia (Figure 1). At present, chamois populations are classified into two species, R. pyrenaica and R. rupicapra [9], on the basis of morphological and behavioral characters: Rupicapra pyrenaica (with the subspecies parva, pyrenaica and ornata) from southwestern Europe, and R. rupicapra (with the subspecies cartusiana, rupicapra, tatrica, carpatica, balcanica, asiatica and caucasica) from central and southeastern Europe and western Asia [10]. Analysis of genetic variation in a limited number of subspecies for allozyme loci [11], minisatellites [12], RFLPs of mitochondrial DNA [13] and the major histocompatibility complex [14,15] provided some support for this classification. However, the nominal species are paraphyletic for mtDNA [16,17].

Bottom Line: The SRY promoter sequences of two samples of Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia) were also determined and compared with the sequences of Bovidae available in the GenBank.The diversity of Y-chromosomes in chamois is very low.The differences in patterns of variation among Y-chromosome, mtDNA and biparental microsatellites reflect the evolutionary characteristics of the different markers as well as the effects of sex-biased dispersal and species phylogeography.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Biología Funcional, Genética, Universidad de Oviedo, Julián Clavería 6, 33006 Oviedo, Spain.

ABSTRACT

Background: The chamois, distributed over most of the medium to high altitude mountain ranges of southern Eurasia, provides an excellent model for exploring the effects of historical and evolutionary events on diversification. Populations have been grouped into two species, Rupicapra pyrenaica from southwestern Europe and R. rupicapra from eastern Europe. The study of matrilineal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and biparentally inherited microsatellites showed that the two species are paraphyletic and indicated alternate events of population contraction and dispersal-hybridization in the diversification of chamois. Here we investigate the pattern of variation of the Y-chromosome to obtain information on the patrilineal phylogenetic position of the genus Rupicapra and on the male-specific dispersal of chamois across Europe.

Results: We analyzed the Y-chromosome of 87 males covering the distribution range of the Rupicapra genus. We sequenced a fragment of the SRY gene promoter and characterized the male specific microsatellites UMN2303 and SRYM18. The SRY promoter sequences of two samples of Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia) were also determined and compared with the sequences of Bovidae available in the GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis of the alignment showed the clustering of Rupicapra with Capra and the Ammotragus sequence obtained in this study, different from the previously reported sequence of Ammotragus which groups with Ovis. Within Rupicapra, the combined data define 10 Y-chromosome haplotypes forming two haplogroups, which concur with taxonomic classification, instead of the three clades formed for mtDNA and nuclear microsatellites. The variation shows a west-to-east geographical cline of ancestral to derived alleles.

Conclusions: The phylogeny of the SRY-promoter shows an association between Rupicapra and Capra. The position of Ammotragus needs a reinvestigation. The study of ancestral and derived characters in the Y-chromosome suggests that, contrary to the presumed Asian origin, the paternal lineage of chamois originated in the Mediterranean, most probably in the Iberian Peninsula, and dispersed eastwards through serial funding events during the glacial-interglacial cycles of the Quaternary. The diversity of Y-chromosomes in chamois is very low. The differences in patterns of variation among Y-chromosome, mtDNA and biparental microsatellites reflect the evolutionary characteristics of the different markers as well as the effects of sex-biased dispersal and species phylogeography.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus