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Generation of reactive oxygen species in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) treated dopaminergic neurons occurs as an NADPH oxidase-dependent two-wave cascade.

Zawada WM, Banninger GP, Thornton J, Marriott B, Cantu D, Rachubinski AL, Das M, Griffin WS, Jones SM - J Neuroinflammation (2011)

Bottom Line: A two-wave cascade of ROS production is active in nigral dopaminergic neurons in response to neurotoxicity-induced superoxide.Our findings allow us to conclude that superoxide generated by NADPH oxidase present in nigral neurons contributes to the loss of such neurons in PD.Losartan suppression of nigral-cell superoxide production suggests that angiotensin receptor blockers have potential as PD preventatives.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Donald W, Reynolds Department of Geriatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA. wzawada@uams.edu

ABSTRACT

Background: Reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), are necessary for appropriate responses to immune challenges. In the brain, excess superoxide production predicts neuronal cell loss, suggesting that Parkinson's disease (PD) with its wholesale death of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta (nigra) may be a case in point. Although microglial NADPH oxidase-produced superoxide contributes to dopaminergic neuron death in an MPTP mouse model of PD, this is secondary to an initial die off of such neurons, suggesting that the initial MPTP-induced death of neurons may be via activation of NADPH oxidase in neurons themselves, thus providing an early therapeutic target.

Methods: NADPH oxidase subunits were visualized in adult mouse nigra neurons and in N27 rat dopaminergic cells by immunofluorescence. NADPH oxidase subunits in N27 cell cultures were detected by immunoblots and RT-PCR. Superoxide was measured by flow cytometric detection of H2O2-induced carboxy-H2-DCFDA fluorescence. Cells were treated with MPP+ (MPTP metabolite) following siRNA silencing of the Nox2-stabilizing subunit p22phox, or simultaneously with NADPH oxidase pharmacological inhibitors or with losartan to antagonize angiotensin II type 1 receptor-induced NADPH oxidase activation.

Results: Nigral dopaminergic neurons in situ expressed three subunits necessary for NADPH oxidase activation, and these as well as several other NADPH oxidase subunits and their encoding mRNAs were detected in unstimulated N27 cells. Overnight MPP+ treatment of N27 cells induced Nox2 protein and superoxide generation, which was counteracted by NADPH oxidase inhibitors, by siRNA silencing of p22phox, or losartan. A two-wave ROS cascade was identified: 1) as a first wave, mitochondrial H2O2 production was first noted at three hours of MPP+ treatment; and 2) as a second wave, H2O2 levels were further increased by 24 hours. This second wave was eliminated by pharmacological inhibitors and a blocker of protein synthesis.

Conclusions: A two-wave cascade of ROS production is active in nigral dopaminergic neurons in response to neurotoxicity-induced superoxide. Our findings allow us to conclude that superoxide generated by NADPH oxidase present in nigral neurons contributes to the loss of such neurons in PD. Losartan suppression of nigral-cell superoxide production suggests that angiotensin receptor blockers have potential as PD preventatives.

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Complex I inhibitor rotenone attenuates MPP+ induced ROS. N27 cells were treated with MPP+ or rotenone alone, or combined for 18 hours. H2O2 (ROS) levels were measured at that time using carboxy-H2-DCFDA and flow cytometry and are reported as % of MPP+ induced ROS. * represents p < 0.01 and # represents p < 0.05, both compared to the MPP+ treated cells. Data are from 3 independent experiments with n = 6 wells per experiment.
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Figure 4: Complex I inhibitor rotenone attenuates MPP+ induced ROS. N27 cells were treated with MPP+ or rotenone alone, or combined for 18 hours. H2O2 (ROS) levels were measured at that time using carboxy-H2-DCFDA and flow cytometry and are reported as % of MPP+ induced ROS. * represents p < 0.01 and # represents p < 0.05, both compared to the MPP+ treated cells. Data are from 3 independent experiments with n = 6 wells per experiment.

Mentions: The potential of MPP+ binding to mitochondrial complex I in generation of ROS was previously shown in competition studies in which C14-labeled rotenone competed with MPP+ for binding to sub-mitochondrial particles [50]. Rotenone-treatment of MPP+ treated N27 cell cultures results in a fifty percent suppression of H2O2 production (Figure 4). As complex I is necessary for electron transport-dependent ATP production, it may be that MPP+ binding to mitochondrial complex I contributes to cell killing by suppressing ATP generation while increasing superoxide production.


Generation of reactive oxygen species in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) treated dopaminergic neurons occurs as an NADPH oxidase-dependent two-wave cascade.

Zawada WM, Banninger GP, Thornton J, Marriott B, Cantu D, Rachubinski AL, Das M, Griffin WS, Jones SM - J Neuroinflammation (2011)

Complex I inhibitor rotenone attenuates MPP+ induced ROS. N27 cells were treated with MPP+ or rotenone alone, or combined for 18 hours. H2O2 (ROS) levels were measured at that time using carboxy-H2-DCFDA and flow cytometry and are reported as % of MPP+ induced ROS. * represents p < 0.01 and # represents p < 0.05, both compared to the MPP+ treated cells. Data are from 3 independent experiments with n = 6 wells per experiment.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3198931&req=5

Figure 4: Complex I inhibitor rotenone attenuates MPP+ induced ROS. N27 cells were treated with MPP+ or rotenone alone, or combined for 18 hours. H2O2 (ROS) levels were measured at that time using carboxy-H2-DCFDA and flow cytometry and are reported as % of MPP+ induced ROS. * represents p < 0.01 and # represents p < 0.05, both compared to the MPP+ treated cells. Data are from 3 independent experiments with n = 6 wells per experiment.
Mentions: The potential of MPP+ binding to mitochondrial complex I in generation of ROS was previously shown in competition studies in which C14-labeled rotenone competed with MPP+ for binding to sub-mitochondrial particles [50]. Rotenone-treatment of MPP+ treated N27 cell cultures results in a fifty percent suppression of H2O2 production (Figure 4). As complex I is necessary for electron transport-dependent ATP production, it may be that MPP+ binding to mitochondrial complex I contributes to cell killing by suppressing ATP generation while increasing superoxide production.

Bottom Line: A two-wave cascade of ROS production is active in nigral dopaminergic neurons in response to neurotoxicity-induced superoxide.Our findings allow us to conclude that superoxide generated by NADPH oxidase present in nigral neurons contributes to the loss of such neurons in PD.Losartan suppression of nigral-cell superoxide production suggests that angiotensin receptor blockers have potential as PD preventatives.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Donald W, Reynolds Department of Geriatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA. wzawada@uams.edu

ABSTRACT

Background: Reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), are necessary for appropriate responses to immune challenges. In the brain, excess superoxide production predicts neuronal cell loss, suggesting that Parkinson's disease (PD) with its wholesale death of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta (nigra) may be a case in point. Although microglial NADPH oxidase-produced superoxide contributes to dopaminergic neuron death in an MPTP mouse model of PD, this is secondary to an initial die off of such neurons, suggesting that the initial MPTP-induced death of neurons may be via activation of NADPH oxidase in neurons themselves, thus providing an early therapeutic target.

Methods: NADPH oxidase subunits were visualized in adult mouse nigra neurons and in N27 rat dopaminergic cells by immunofluorescence. NADPH oxidase subunits in N27 cell cultures were detected by immunoblots and RT-PCR. Superoxide was measured by flow cytometric detection of H2O2-induced carboxy-H2-DCFDA fluorescence. Cells were treated with MPP+ (MPTP metabolite) following siRNA silencing of the Nox2-stabilizing subunit p22phox, or simultaneously with NADPH oxidase pharmacological inhibitors or with losartan to antagonize angiotensin II type 1 receptor-induced NADPH oxidase activation.

Results: Nigral dopaminergic neurons in situ expressed three subunits necessary for NADPH oxidase activation, and these as well as several other NADPH oxidase subunits and their encoding mRNAs were detected in unstimulated N27 cells. Overnight MPP+ treatment of N27 cells induced Nox2 protein and superoxide generation, which was counteracted by NADPH oxidase inhibitors, by siRNA silencing of p22phox, or losartan. A two-wave ROS cascade was identified: 1) as a first wave, mitochondrial H2O2 production was first noted at three hours of MPP+ treatment; and 2) as a second wave, H2O2 levels were further increased by 24 hours. This second wave was eliminated by pharmacological inhibitors and a blocker of protein synthesis.

Conclusions: A two-wave cascade of ROS production is active in nigral dopaminergic neurons in response to neurotoxicity-induced superoxide. Our findings allow us to conclude that superoxide generated by NADPH oxidase present in nigral neurons contributes to the loss of such neurons in PD. Losartan suppression of nigral-cell superoxide production suggests that angiotensin receptor blockers have potential as PD preventatives.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus