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Magnesium deficiency induces anxiety and HPA axis dysregulation: modulation by therapeutic drug treatment.

Sartori SB, Whittle N, Hetzenauer A, Singewald N - Neuropharmacology (2011)

Bottom Line: Since there is evidence that Mg(2+) modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis, we tested whether enhanced anxiety-like behaviour can be reliably elicited by dietary Mg(2+) deficiency and whether Mg(2+) deficiency is associated with altered HPA axis function.It is further suggested that dysregulations in the HPA axis may contribute to the hyper-emotionality in response to dietary induced hypomagnesaemia.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Anxiety and Depression'.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Institute of Pharmacy, and Centre for Molecular Biosciences Innsbruck (CMBI), University of Innsbruck, Peter-Mayr-Strasse 1, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria. simone.sartori@uibk.ac.at

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Effect of Mg2+ deficiency and chronic paroxetine treatment on selected anxiety-related measures in C57Bl/6N mice. A. In mice fed a Mg2+ restricted diet (MgD) the time spent in the anxiogenic centre of an open field was decreased compared with mice fed the control diet (control) indicating enhanced anxiety-related behaviour. B. Anxiety-related behaviour was also elevated in the light/dark test as indicated by the increased latency to enter the (anxiogenic) brightly lit compartment. Chronic treatment with paroxetine (MgD + PAR) did not alter anxiety-related behaviour of Mg2+ deficient mice in these tests. n = 10 per experimental group. Data represent means ± SEM. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 for Mg2+ deficient vs. control mice.
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fig1: Effect of Mg2+ deficiency and chronic paroxetine treatment on selected anxiety-related measures in C57Bl/6N mice. A. In mice fed a Mg2+ restricted diet (MgD) the time spent in the anxiogenic centre of an open field was decreased compared with mice fed the control diet (control) indicating enhanced anxiety-related behaviour. B. Anxiety-related behaviour was also elevated in the light/dark test as indicated by the increased latency to enter the (anxiogenic) brightly lit compartment. Chronic treatment with paroxetine (MgD + PAR) did not alter anxiety-related behaviour of Mg2+ deficient mice in these tests. n = 10 per experimental group. Data represent means ± SEM. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 for Mg2+ deficient vs. control mice.

Mentions: Animals of the C57Bl/6N strain were then tested in the open field test and light/dark test which are based on an exploration-avoidance conflict (for review see e.g. Cryan and Holmes, 2005). In the open field test (Table 1), experimental groups differed significantly in terms of number of entries into the centre of the testing arena (F2,27 = 5.021, P < 0.05), time spent there (F2,26 = 5.284, P < 0.05; Fig. 1) as well as number of rearings (F2,27 = 6.381, P < 0.01). Specifically, compared with mice fed the control diet, these measures were lower in Mg2+ deficient and paroxetine-treated Mg2+ deficient animals. In the light/dark test (Table 1; Fig. 1), we observed a significant difference in the latency to enter the brightly lit, aversive compartment of the light/dark chamber (F2,27 = 7.122, P < 0.01) as this latency was increased in both groups fed a Mg2+ restricted diet (Fig. 1). Furthermore, there was a significant group effect in terms of the number of entries into (F2,27 = 3.430, P < 0.05) and time spent (F2,27 = 5.045, P < 0.05) in the lit compartment of the light/dark test chamber, and in the rearing numbers (F2,27 = 7.361, P < 0.01). Paroxetine-treated Mg2+ deficient mice displayed reduced values in all three parameters compared with both control and Mg2+ deficient groups (Table 1).


Magnesium deficiency induces anxiety and HPA axis dysregulation: modulation by therapeutic drug treatment.

Sartori SB, Whittle N, Hetzenauer A, Singewald N - Neuropharmacology (2011)

Effect of Mg2+ deficiency and chronic paroxetine treatment on selected anxiety-related measures in C57Bl/6N mice. A. In mice fed a Mg2+ restricted diet (MgD) the time spent in the anxiogenic centre of an open field was decreased compared with mice fed the control diet (control) indicating enhanced anxiety-related behaviour. B. Anxiety-related behaviour was also elevated in the light/dark test as indicated by the increased latency to enter the (anxiogenic) brightly lit compartment. Chronic treatment with paroxetine (MgD + PAR) did not alter anxiety-related behaviour of Mg2+ deficient mice in these tests. n = 10 per experimental group. Data represent means ± SEM. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 for Mg2+ deficient vs. control mice.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3198864&req=5

fig1: Effect of Mg2+ deficiency and chronic paroxetine treatment on selected anxiety-related measures in C57Bl/6N mice. A. In mice fed a Mg2+ restricted diet (MgD) the time spent in the anxiogenic centre of an open field was decreased compared with mice fed the control diet (control) indicating enhanced anxiety-related behaviour. B. Anxiety-related behaviour was also elevated in the light/dark test as indicated by the increased latency to enter the (anxiogenic) brightly lit compartment. Chronic treatment with paroxetine (MgD + PAR) did not alter anxiety-related behaviour of Mg2+ deficient mice in these tests. n = 10 per experimental group. Data represent means ± SEM. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 for Mg2+ deficient vs. control mice.
Mentions: Animals of the C57Bl/6N strain were then tested in the open field test and light/dark test which are based on an exploration-avoidance conflict (for review see e.g. Cryan and Holmes, 2005). In the open field test (Table 1), experimental groups differed significantly in terms of number of entries into the centre of the testing arena (F2,27 = 5.021, P < 0.05), time spent there (F2,26 = 5.284, P < 0.05; Fig. 1) as well as number of rearings (F2,27 = 6.381, P < 0.01). Specifically, compared with mice fed the control diet, these measures were lower in Mg2+ deficient and paroxetine-treated Mg2+ deficient animals. In the light/dark test (Table 1; Fig. 1), we observed a significant difference in the latency to enter the brightly lit, aversive compartment of the light/dark chamber (F2,27 = 7.122, P < 0.01) as this latency was increased in both groups fed a Mg2+ restricted diet (Fig. 1). Furthermore, there was a significant group effect in terms of the number of entries into (F2,27 = 3.430, P < 0.05) and time spent (F2,27 = 5.045, P < 0.05) in the lit compartment of the light/dark test chamber, and in the rearing numbers (F2,27 = 7.361, P < 0.01). Paroxetine-treated Mg2+ deficient mice displayed reduced values in all three parameters compared with both control and Mg2+ deficient groups (Table 1).

Bottom Line: Since there is evidence that Mg(2+) modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis, we tested whether enhanced anxiety-like behaviour can be reliably elicited by dietary Mg(2+) deficiency and whether Mg(2+) deficiency is associated with altered HPA axis function.It is further suggested that dysregulations in the HPA axis may contribute to the hyper-emotionality in response to dietary induced hypomagnesaemia.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Anxiety and Depression'.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Institute of Pharmacy, and Centre for Molecular Biosciences Innsbruck (CMBI), University of Innsbruck, Peter-Mayr-Strasse 1, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria. simone.sartori@uibk.ac.at

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus