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Magnetic field is the dominant factor to induce the response of Streptomyces avermitilis in altered gravity simulated by diamagnetic levitation.

Liu M, Gao H, Shang P, Zhou X, Ashforth E, Zhuo Y, Chen D, Ren B, Liu Z, Zhang L - PLoS ONE (2011)

Bottom Line: The results showed that diamagnetic levitation could induce a physiological response in S. avermitilis.The difference between 1 g* and the control group grown without the strong magnetic field (1 g), showed that the magnetic field was a more dominant factor influencing changes in morphology and secondary metabolite production, than altered gravity.We have discovered that magnetic field, rather than altered gravity, is the dominant factor in altered gravity simulated by diamagnetic levitation, therefore care should to be taken in the interpretation of results when using diamagnetic levitation as a technique to simulate altered gravity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Chinese Academy of Sciences Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

ABSTRACT

Background: Diamagnetic levitation is a technique that uses a strong, spatially varying magnetic field to simulate an altered gravity environment, as in space. In this study, using Streptomyces avermitilis as the test organism, we investigate whether changes in magnetic field and altered gravity induce changes in morphology and secondary metabolism. We find that a strong magnetic field (12T) inhibit the morphological development of S. avermitilis in solid culture, and increase the production of secondary metabolites.

Methodology/principal findings: S. avermitilis on solid medium was levitated at 0 g*, 1 g* and 2 g* in an altered gravity environment simulated by diamagnetic levitation and under a strong magnetic field, denoted by the asterix. The morphology was obtained by electromicroscopy. The production of the secondary metabolite, avermectin, was determined by OD(245 nm). The results showed that diamagnetic levitation could induce a physiological response in S. avermitilis. The difference between 1 g* and the control group grown without the strong magnetic field (1 g), showed that the magnetic field was a more dominant factor influencing changes in morphology and secondary metabolite production, than altered gravity.

Conclusion/significance: We have discovered that magnetic field, rather than altered gravity, is the dominant factor in altered gravity simulated by diamagnetic levitation, therefore care should to be taken in the interpretation of results when using diamagnetic levitation as a technique to simulate altered gravity. Hence, these results are significant, and timely to researchers considering the use of diamagnetic levitation to explore effects of weightlessness on living organisms and on physical phenomena.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

The effect of magnetic field on mycelium morphology of S. avermitilis.The electron microscopic photos showed retardation of the morphological shift from filamentous to coccid, after magnetic levitation.
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pone-0024697-g002: The effect of magnetic field on mycelium morphology of S. avermitilis.The electron microscopic photos showed retardation of the morphological shift from filamentous to coccid, after magnetic levitation.

Mentions: Figure 2 shows the effect of magnetic field and gravitational force on the mycelium morphology of strain PE1. We found that after 7days the cells of the 1 g group were sporulating, while those of the 1 g* group, exposed to the 12T magnetic field, remained filamentous. The mycelium of 1 g was also more abundant than that of 1 g*. The mycelium was less dense for groups 0 g* and 1 g* group compared to that of 2 g*. As shown in Figure 2, the magnetic field had negative effect on the morphology of PE1, and the effect was more significant than that of gravitational force. Furthermore, increasing the gravitational force did not significantly affect the morphology of PE1, but could compensate the negative effect of magnetic field in part. These results demonstrated that we could isolate and quantitate a direct effect of the high magnetic field and of gravity on the morphology of S. avermitilis strain PE1.


Magnetic field is the dominant factor to induce the response of Streptomyces avermitilis in altered gravity simulated by diamagnetic levitation.

Liu M, Gao H, Shang P, Zhou X, Ashforth E, Zhuo Y, Chen D, Ren B, Liu Z, Zhang L - PLoS ONE (2011)

The effect of magnetic field on mycelium morphology of S. avermitilis.The electron microscopic photos showed retardation of the morphological shift from filamentous to coccid, after magnetic levitation.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3198441&req=5

pone-0024697-g002: The effect of magnetic field on mycelium morphology of S. avermitilis.The electron microscopic photos showed retardation of the morphological shift from filamentous to coccid, after magnetic levitation.
Mentions: Figure 2 shows the effect of magnetic field and gravitational force on the mycelium morphology of strain PE1. We found that after 7days the cells of the 1 g group were sporulating, while those of the 1 g* group, exposed to the 12T magnetic field, remained filamentous. The mycelium of 1 g was also more abundant than that of 1 g*. The mycelium was less dense for groups 0 g* and 1 g* group compared to that of 2 g*. As shown in Figure 2, the magnetic field had negative effect on the morphology of PE1, and the effect was more significant than that of gravitational force. Furthermore, increasing the gravitational force did not significantly affect the morphology of PE1, but could compensate the negative effect of magnetic field in part. These results demonstrated that we could isolate and quantitate a direct effect of the high magnetic field and of gravity on the morphology of S. avermitilis strain PE1.

Bottom Line: The results showed that diamagnetic levitation could induce a physiological response in S. avermitilis.The difference between 1 g* and the control group grown without the strong magnetic field (1 g), showed that the magnetic field was a more dominant factor influencing changes in morphology and secondary metabolite production, than altered gravity.We have discovered that magnetic field, rather than altered gravity, is the dominant factor in altered gravity simulated by diamagnetic levitation, therefore care should to be taken in the interpretation of results when using diamagnetic levitation as a technique to simulate altered gravity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Chinese Academy of Sciences Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

ABSTRACT

Background: Diamagnetic levitation is a technique that uses a strong, spatially varying magnetic field to simulate an altered gravity environment, as in space. In this study, using Streptomyces avermitilis as the test organism, we investigate whether changes in magnetic field and altered gravity induce changes in morphology and secondary metabolism. We find that a strong magnetic field (12T) inhibit the morphological development of S. avermitilis in solid culture, and increase the production of secondary metabolites.

Methodology/principal findings: S. avermitilis on solid medium was levitated at 0 g*, 1 g* and 2 g* in an altered gravity environment simulated by diamagnetic levitation and under a strong magnetic field, denoted by the asterix. The morphology was obtained by electromicroscopy. The production of the secondary metabolite, avermectin, was determined by OD(245 nm). The results showed that diamagnetic levitation could induce a physiological response in S. avermitilis. The difference between 1 g* and the control group grown without the strong magnetic field (1 g), showed that the magnetic field was a more dominant factor influencing changes in morphology and secondary metabolite production, than altered gravity.

Conclusion/significance: We have discovered that magnetic field, rather than altered gravity, is the dominant factor in altered gravity simulated by diamagnetic levitation, therefore care should to be taken in the interpretation of results when using diamagnetic levitation as a technique to simulate altered gravity. Hence, these results are significant, and timely to researchers considering the use of diamagnetic levitation to explore effects of weightlessness on living organisms and on physical phenomena.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus