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PI3K-dependent GSK3ß(Ser9)-phosphorylation is implicated in the intestinal epithelial cell wound-healing response.

Karrasch T, Spaeth T, Allard B, Jobin C - PLoS ONE (2011)

Bottom Line: GSK3ß(-/-) cells demonstrated significantly attenuated wound-induced restitution compared to wild-type cells.We conclude that PI3K-mediated GSK3ß phosphorylation is involved in the intestinal epithelial wound-healing response.Phosphorylation of GSK3ß may be important for intestinal restitution by promoting cell motility in response to wounding.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany. thomas.karrasch@klinik.uni-regensburg.de

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The ability of the intestinal epithelial barrier to respond to various injurious insults is an essential component of intestinal homeostasis. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for wound-healing and repair in the intestine are poorly understood. The glycogen synthase kinase 3ß (GSK3ß) has been implicated in various biological processes such as cellular motility, cell spreading and recently inflammation.

Aim: To investigate the role of GSK3ß in intestinal epithelial cell restitution.

Methods: Rat intestinal epithelial IEC18 cells were serum-starved for 16 to 24 h and wounded by multiple scraping. Akt(Ser473)-, GSK3ß(Ser9)- and RelA(Ser536)-phosphorylation were determined by Western blot using specific phospho-antibodies. The inhibitors AG1478 (1 µM) and Ly294002 (25 µM) were used to block EGF-R autophosphorylation and PI3K-activation, respectively. ß-Catenin/LEF/TCF dependent transcription was determined by reporter gene assay (TOP/FOP system). C-myc gene expression was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR. GSK3ß(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts were used to characterize the role of GSK3ß in wounding-induced cell migration.

Results: Wounding induced GSK3ß(Ser9) phosphorylation in IEC-18 cells, which led to ß-catenin accumulation as well as nuclear translocation of ß-catenin. ß-Catenin stabilization/nuclear translocation led to enhanced LEF-TCF transcriptional activity and subsequent c-myc mRNA accumulation in wounded cell monolayers. Blocking PI3K/Akt signaling with Ly294002 prevented wound-induced GSK3ß(Ser9) phosphorylation as well as ß-catenin nuclear translocation and significantly attenuated restitution. Additionally, wounding induced rapid NF-kB(Ser536) phosphorylation, which was inhibited by AG1478, but not by Ly294002. GSK3ß(-/-) cells demonstrated significantly attenuated wound-induced restitution compared to wild-type cells.

Conclusion: We conclude that PI3K-mediated GSK3ß phosphorylation is involved in the intestinal epithelial wound-healing response. Phosphorylation of GSK3ß may be important for intestinal restitution by promoting cell motility in response to wounding.

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GSK3ß−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts display reduced restitution in response to scrape-wounding as compared to GSK3ßwt/wt cells.Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) were prepared from GSK3ß−/− and GSK3ßwt/wt mice and grown to confluency. Cells were serum-starved overnight, standardized wounds were created using a razor blade and restitution was monitored over 24 h using serial microphotography. Data are expressed as median and interquartile range (IQR) of n = 9 independent wounds per condition. Statistical analysis was performed by the Kruskal-Wallis test for non-parametric data (*p<0.05 versus control).
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pone-0026340-g006: GSK3ß−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts display reduced restitution in response to scrape-wounding as compared to GSK3ßwt/wt cells.Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) were prepared from GSK3ß−/− and GSK3ßwt/wt mice and grown to confluency. Cells were serum-starved overnight, standardized wounds were created using a razor blade and restitution was monitored over 24 h using serial microphotography. Data are expressed as median and interquartile range (IQR) of n = 9 independent wounds per condition. Statistical analysis was performed by the Kruskal-Wallis test for non-parametric data (*p<0.05 versus control).

Mentions: To extend the findings obtained with a pharmacological inhibitor, we performed functional migration assays using GSK3ß−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF). These GSK3ß−/− MEF exhibit ß-catenin levels comparable to GSK3ßwt/wt MEF controls [28], [37]. Interestingly, cellular migration of GSK3ß−/− MEF compared to GSK3ßwt/wt MEF was significantly reduced (Fig. 6). Of note, Takada et al demonstrated that GSK3ß−/− MEF were defective in TNF-induced Akt phosphorylation [38]. This finding indicates that complete ablation of GSK3ß impairs cell migration, however, the association of PI3K, Akt, GSK3ß, ß-catenin and cell migration proves to be complex.


PI3K-dependent GSK3ß(Ser9)-phosphorylation is implicated in the intestinal epithelial cell wound-healing response.

Karrasch T, Spaeth T, Allard B, Jobin C - PLoS ONE (2011)

GSK3ß−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts display reduced restitution in response to scrape-wounding as compared to GSK3ßwt/wt cells.Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) were prepared from GSK3ß−/− and GSK3ßwt/wt mice and grown to confluency. Cells were serum-starved overnight, standardized wounds were created using a razor blade and restitution was monitored over 24 h using serial microphotography. Data are expressed as median and interquartile range (IQR) of n = 9 independent wounds per condition. Statistical analysis was performed by the Kruskal-Wallis test for non-parametric data (*p<0.05 versus control).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3198390&req=5

pone-0026340-g006: GSK3ß−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts display reduced restitution in response to scrape-wounding as compared to GSK3ßwt/wt cells.Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) were prepared from GSK3ß−/− and GSK3ßwt/wt mice and grown to confluency. Cells were serum-starved overnight, standardized wounds were created using a razor blade and restitution was monitored over 24 h using serial microphotography. Data are expressed as median and interquartile range (IQR) of n = 9 independent wounds per condition. Statistical analysis was performed by the Kruskal-Wallis test for non-parametric data (*p<0.05 versus control).
Mentions: To extend the findings obtained with a pharmacological inhibitor, we performed functional migration assays using GSK3ß−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF). These GSK3ß−/− MEF exhibit ß-catenin levels comparable to GSK3ßwt/wt MEF controls [28], [37]. Interestingly, cellular migration of GSK3ß−/− MEF compared to GSK3ßwt/wt MEF was significantly reduced (Fig. 6). Of note, Takada et al demonstrated that GSK3ß−/− MEF were defective in TNF-induced Akt phosphorylation [38]. This finding indicates that complete ablation of GSK3ß impairs cell migration, however, the association of PI3K, Akt, GSK3ß, ß-catenin and cell migration proves to be complex.

Bottom Line: GSK3ß(-/-) cells demonstrated significantly attenuated wound-induced restitution compared to wild-type cells.We conclude that PI3K-mediated GSK3ß phosphorylation is involved in the intestinal epithelial wound-healing response.Phosphorylation of GSK3ß may be important for intestinal restitution by promoting cell motility in response to wounding.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany. thomas.karrasch@klinik.uni-regensburg.de

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The ability of the intestinal epithelial barrier to respond to various injurious insults is an essential component of intestinal homeostasis. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for wound-healing and repair in the intestine are poorly understood. The glycogen synthase kinase 3ß (GSK3ß) has been implicated in various biological processes such as cellular motility, cell spreading and recently inflammation.

Aim: To investigate the role of GSK3ß in intestinal epithelial cell restitution.

Methods: Rat intestinal epithelial IEC18 cells were serum-starved for 16 to 24 h and wounded by multiple scraping. Akt(Ser473)-, GSK3ß(Ser9)- and RelA(Ser536)-phosphorylation were determined by Western blot using specific phospho-antibodies. The inhibitors AG1478 (1 µM) and Ly294002 (25 µM) were used to block EGF-R autophosphorylation and PI3K-activation, respectively. ß-Catenin/LEF/TCF dependent transcription was determined by reporter gene assay (TOP/FOP system). C-myc gene expression was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR. GSK3ß(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts were used to characterize the role of GSK3ß in wounding-induced cell migration.

Results: Wounding induced GSK3ß(Ser9) phosphorylation in IEC-18 cells, which led to ß-catenin accumulation as well as nuclear translocation of ß-catenin. ß-Catenin stabilization/nuclear translocation led to enhanced LEF-TCF transcriptional activity and subsequent c-myc mRNA accumulation in wounded cell monolayers. Blocking PI3K/Akt signaling with Ly294002 prevented wound-induced GSK3ß(Ser9) phosphorylation as well as ß-catenin nuclear translocation and significantly attenuated restitution. Additionally, wounding induced rapid NF-kB(Ser536) phosphorylation, which was inhibited by AG1478, but not by Ly294002. GSK3ß(-/-) cells demonstrated significantly attenuated wound-induced restitution compared to wild-type cells.

Conclusion: We conclude that PI3K-mediated GSK3ß phosphorylation is involved in the intestinal epithelial wound-healing response. Phosphorylation of GSK3ß may be important for intestinal restitution by promoting cell motility in response to wounding.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus