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Genotypic and phenotypic properties of cattle-associated Campylobacter and their implications to public health in the USA.

Sanad YM, Kassem II, Abley M, Gebreyes W, LeJeune JT, Rajashekara G - PLoS ONE (2011)

Bottom Line: The prevalence of Campylobacter varied regionally and was significantly (P<0.05) higher in fecal samples collected from the South (32.8%) as compared to those from the North (14.8%), Midwest (15.83%), and East (12%).Furthermore, many cattle associated Campylobacter isolates showed resistance to several antimicrobials including ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and gentamicin.Taken together, our results highlight the importance of cattle as a potential reservoir for clinically important Campylobacter.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Food Animal Health Research Program, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State University, Wooster, Ohio, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Since cattle are a major source of food and the cattle industry engages people from farms to processing plants and meat markets, it is conceivable that beef-products contaminated with Campylobacter spp. would pose a significant public health concern. To better understand the epidemiology of cattle-associated Campylobacter spp. in the USA, we characterized the prevalence, genotypic and phenotypic properties of these pathogens. Campylobacter were detected in 181 (19.2%) out of 944 fecal samples. Specifically, 71 C. jejuni, 132 C. coli, and 10 other Campylobacter spp. were identified. The prevalence of Campylobacter varied regionally and was significantly (P<0.05) higher in fecal samples collected from the South (32.8%) as compared to those from the North (14.8%), Midwest (15.83%), and East (12%). Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis showed that C. jejuni and C. coli isolates were genotypically diverse and certain genotypes were shared across two or more of the geographic locations. In addition, 13 new C. jejuni and two C. coli sequence types (STs) were detected by Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). C. jejuni associated with clinically human health important sequence type, ST-61 which was not previously reported in the USA, was identified in the present study. Most frequently observed clonal complexes (CC) were CC ST-21, CC ST-42, and CC ST-61, which are also common in humans. Further, the cattle associated C. jejuni strains showed varying invasion and intracellular survival capacity; however, C. coli strains showed a lower invasion and intracellular survival potential compared to C. jejuni strains. Furthermore, many cattle associated Campylobacter isolates showed resistance to several antimicrobials including ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and gentamicin. Taken together, our results highlight the importance of cattle as a potential reservoir for clinically important Campylobacter.

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Dendrogram showing the Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns for SmaI restricted cattle-associated C. jejuni (A) and C. coli (B).Similarity analysis was performed using the Dice coefficient, and clustering was performed by the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages UPGMA (optimization, 1% and position tolerance, 1.5%). Clustering cut-off was 75% similarity, which was represented by dashed line. Numbers on bootstraps represent Cophenetic correlations. N = North, S = South, M = Midwest, and E = East. Cj = C. jejuni, CC = C. coli.
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pone-0025778-g001: Dendrogram showing the Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns for SmaI restricted cattle-associated C. jejuni (A) and C. coli (B).Similarity analysis was performed using the Dice coefficient, and clustering was performed by the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages UPGMA (optimization, 1% and position tolerance, 1.5%). Clustering cut-off was 75% similarity, which was represented by dashed line. Numbers on bootstraps represent Cophenetic correlations. N = North, S = South, M = Midwest, and E = East. Cj = C. jejuni, CC = C. coli.

Mentions: PFGE analysis was performed on C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from feces in order to determine the genetic diversity of these bacteria and the relationship between the isolates retrieved from different geographic locations. PFGE analysis was successfully performed on 67 out of 71 C. jejuni, while 4 isolates could not be typed using the aforementioned method. Regardless, analysis of the PFGE profiles of the C. jejuni suggested that the isolates possessed diverse genotypes, especially when comparing profiles of isolates belonging to different geographic locations (Fig. 1A). Furthermore, there were 7 main clusters (Fig. 1A) and by using a cut-off similarity value of 75%, profiles of the C. jejuni were classified to15 sub-clusters. With the exception of 4 clusters that included isolates that were collected from 2 to 3 different geographic locations, C. jejuni profiles were mostly found to form geographically homogenous groupings. For example, one cluster was composed of three isolates collected from the East, the Midwest, and the South, respectively, while others included 4 isolates, 3 of which were isolated from the Midwest and one from the South (see arrows in Fig. 1A). Overall, it was interesting to observe that profiles of the isolates from the North did not group with those collected from the East and the South.


Genotypic and phenotypic properties of cattle-associated Campylobacter and their implications to public health in the USA.

Sanad YM, Kassem II, Abley M, Gebreyes W, LeJeune JT, Rajashekara G - PLoS ONE (2011)

Dendrogram showing the Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns for SmaI restricted cattle-associated C. jejuni (A) and C. coli (B).Similarity analysis was performed using the Dice coefficient, and clustering was performed by the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages UPGMA (optimization, 1% and position tolerance, 1.5%). Clustering cut-off was 75% similarity, which was represented by dashed line. Numbers on bootstraps represent Cophenetic correlations. N = North, S = South, M = Midwest, and E = East. Cj = C. jejuni, CC = C. coli.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3198382&req=5

pone-0025778-g001: Dendrogram showing the Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns for SmaI restricted cattle-associated C. jejuni (A) and C. coli (B).Similarity analysis was performed using the Dice coefficient, and clustering was performed by the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages UPGMA (optimization, 1% and position tolerance, 1.5%). Clustering cut-off was 75% similarity, which was represented by dashed line. Numbers on bootstraps represent Cophenetic correlations. N = North, S = South, M = Midwest, and E = East. Cj = C. jejuni, CC = C. coli.
Mentions: PFGE analysis was performed on C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from feces in order to determine the genetic diversity of these bacteria and the relationship between the isolates retrieved from different geographic locations. PFGE analysis was successfully performed on 67 out of 71 C. jejuni, while 4 isolates could not be typed using the aforementioned method. Regardless, analysis of the PFGE profiles of the C. jejuni suggested that the isolates possessed diverse genotypes, especially when comparing profiles of isolates belonging to different geographic locations (Fig. 1A). Furthermore, there were 7 main clusters (Fig. 1A) and by using a cut-off similarity value of 75%, profiles of the C. jejuni were classified to15 sub-clusters. With the exception of 4 clusters that included isolates that were collected from 2 to 3 different geographic locations, C. jejuni profiles were mostly found to form geographically homogenous groupings. For example, one cluster was composed of three isolates collected from the East, the Midwest, and the South, respectively, while others included 4 isolates, 3 of which were isolated from the Midwest and one from the South (see arrows in Fig. 1A). Overall, it was interesting to observe that profiles of the isolates from the North did not group with those collected from the East and the South.

Bottom Line: The prevalence of Campylobacter varied regionally and was significantly (P<0.05) higher in fecal samples collected from the South (32.8%) as compared to those from the North (14.8%), Midwest (15.83%), and East (12%).Furthermore, many cattle associated Campylobacter isolates showed resistance to several antimicrobials including ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and gentamicin.Taken together, our results highlight the importance of cattle as a potential reservoir for clinically important Campylobacter.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Food Animal Health Research Program, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State University, Wooster, Ohio, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Since cattle are a major source of food and the cattle industry engages people from farms to processing plants and meat markets, it is conceivable that beef-products contaminated with Campylobacter spp. would pose a significant public health concern. To better understand the epidemiology of cattle-associated Campylobacter spp. in the USA, we characterized the prevalence, genotypic and phenotypic properties of these pathogens. Campylobacter were detected in 181 (19.2%) out of 944 fecal samples. Specifically, 71 C. jejuni, 132 C. coli, and 10 other Campylobacter spp. were identified. The prevalence of Campylobacter varied regionally and was significantly (P<0.05) higher in fecal samples collected from the South (32.8%) as compared to those from the North (14.8%), Midwest (15.83%), and East (12%). Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis showed that C. jejuni and C. coli isolates were genotypically diverse and certain genotypes were shared across two or more of the geographic locations. In addition, 13 new C. jejuni and two C. coli sequence types (STs) were detected by Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). C. jejuni associated with clinically human health important sequence type, ST-61 which was not previously reported in the USA, was identified in the present study. Most frequently observed clonal complexes (CC) were CC ST-21, CC ST-42, and CC ST-61, which are also common in humans. Further, the cattle associated C. jejuni strains showed varying invasion and intracellular survival capacity; however, C. coli strains showed a lower invasion and intracellular survival potential compared to C. jejuni strains. Furthermore, many cattle associated Campylobacter isolates showed resistance to several antimicrobials including ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and gentamicin. Taken together, our results highlight the importance of cattle as a potential reservoir for clinically important Campylobacter.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus