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Increased phagocyte-like NADPH oxidase and ROS generation in type 2 diabetic ZDF rat and human islets: role of Rac1-JNK1/2 signaling pathway in mitochondrial dysregulation in the diabetic islet.

Syed I, Kyathanahalli CN, Jayaram B, Govind S, Rhodes CJ, Kowluru RA, Kowluru A - Diabetes (2011)

Bottom Line: Levels of phosphorylated p47(phox), active Rac1, Nox activity, ROS generation, Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) 1/2 phosphorylation, and caspase-3 activity were significantly higher in the ZDF islets than the lean control rat islets.Lastly, in a manner akin to the ZDF diabetic rat islets, Rac1 expression, JNK1/2, and caspase-3 activation were also significantly increased in diabetic human islets.We provide the first in vitro and in vivo evidence in support of an accelerated Rac1-Nox-ROS-JNK1/2 signaling pathway in the islet β-cell leading to the onset of mitochondrial dysregulation in diabetes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Eugene Applebaum College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Detroit, Michigan, USA.

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine the subunit expression and functional activation of phagocyte-like NADPH oxidase (Nox), reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and caspase-3 activation in the Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat and diabetic human islets.

Research design and methods: Expression of core components of Nox was quantitated by Western blotting and densitometry. ROS levels were quantitated by the 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate method. Rac1 activation was quantitated using the gold-labeled immunosorbent assay kit.

Results: Levels of phosphorylated p47(phox), active Rac1, Nox activity, ROS generation, Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) 1/2 phosphorylation, and caspase-3 activity were significantly higher in the ZDF islets than the lean control rat islets. Chronic exposure of INS 832/13 cells to glucolipotoxic conditions resulted in increased JNK1/2 phosphorylation and caspase-3 activity; such effects were largely reversed by SP600125, a selective inhibitor of JNK. Incubation of normal human islets with high glucose also increased the activation of Rac1 and Nox. Lastly, in a manner akin to the ZDF diabetic rat islets, Rac1 expression, JNK1/2, and caspase-3 activation were also significantly increased in diabetic human islets.

Conclusions: We provide the first in vitro and in vivo evidence in support of an accelerated Rac1-Nox-ROS-JNK1/2 signaling pathway in the islet β-cell leading to the onset of mitochondrial dysregulation in diabetes.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic representation of Nox activation. Nox holoenzyme consists of cytosolic and membrane-associated components. Upon activation, Rac1, guanosine-5′-diphosphate (GDP) is converted to Rac1 guanosine-5′-triphosphate (GTP), which binds to p67phox, and the complex translocates to the membrane. Existing evidence in other cell types suggests that phosphorylation of p47phox also triggers its translocation to the membrane to form the Nox holoenzyme complex that culminates in the enzyme activation and associated increase in ROS.
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Figure 1: Schematic representation of Nox activation. Nox holoenzyme consists of cytosolic and membrane-associated components. Upon activation, Rac1, guanosine-5′-diphosphate (GDP) is converted to Rac1 guanosine-5′-triphosphate (GTP), which binds to p67phox, and the complex translocates to the membrane. Existing evidence in other cell types suggests that phosphorylation of p47phox also triggers its translocation to the membrane to form the Nox holoenzyme complex that culminates in the enzyme activation and associated increase in ROS.

Mentions: Excessive ROS generation is considered central to the development of diabetes complications. The generation of free radicals is relatively low under physiologic conditions; however, increased levels of circulating glucose promote intracellular accumulation of superoxides, leading to cellular dysfunction. Although mitochondria remain the primary source for free radicals, emerging evidence implicates Nox as a major source of extra-mitochondrial ROS. Nox is a highly regulated membrane-associated protein complex that promotes a one-electron reduction of oxygen to superoxide anion involving oxidation of cytosolic NADPH. The Nox holoenzyme consists of membrane and cytosolic components (Fig. 1). The membrane-associated catalytic core consists of gp91phox and p22phox, and the cytosolic regulatory core includes p47phox, p67phox, p40phox, and Rac1. After stimulation, the cytosolic core translocates to the membrane for association with the catalytic core for functional activation of Nox. Immunologic localization and functional regulation of Nox have been described in clonal β-cells and in rat and human islets (10–13).


Increased phagocyte-like NADPH oxidase and ROS generation in type 2 diabetic ZDF rat and human islets: role of Rac1-JNK1/2 signaling pathway in mitochondrial dysregulation in the diabetic islet.

Syed I, Kyathanahalli CN, Jayaram B, Govind S, Rhodes CJ, Kowluru RA, Kowluru A - Diabetes (2011)

Schematic representation of Nox activation. Nox holoenzyme consists of cytosolic and membrane-associated components. Upon activation, Rac1, guanosine-5′-diphosphate (GDP) is converted to Rac1 guanosine-5′-triphosphate (GTP), which binds to p67phox, and the complex translocates to the membrane. Existing evidence in other cell types suggests that phosphorylation of p47phox also triggers its translocation to the membrane to form the Nox holoenzyme complex that culminates in the enzyme activation and associated increase in ROS.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3198065&req=5

Figure 1: Schematic representation of Nox activation. Nox holoenzyme consists of cytosolic and membrane-associated components. Upon activation, Rac1, guanosine-5′-diphosphate (GDP) is converted to Rac1 guanosine-5′-triphosphate (GTP), which binds to p67phox, and the complex translocates to the membrane. Existing evidence in other cell types suggests that phosphorylation of p47phox also triggers its translocation to the membrane to form the Nox holoenzyme complex that culminates in the enzyme activation and associated increase in ROS.
Mentions: Excessive ROS generation is considered central to the development of diabetes complications. The generation of free radicals is relatively low under physiologic conditions; however, increased levels of circulating glucose promote intracellular accumulation of superoxides, leading to cellular dysfunction. Although mitochondria remain the primary source for free radicals, emerging evidence implicates Nox as a major source of extra-mitochondrial ROS. Nox is a highly regulated membrane-associated protein complex that promotes a one-electron reduction of oxygen to superoxide anion involving oxidation of cytosolic NADPH. The Nox holoenzyme consists of membrane and cytosolic components (Fig. 1). The membrane-associated catalytic core consists of gp91phox and p22phox, and the cytosolic regulatory core includes p47phox, p67phox, p40phox, and Rac1. After stimulation, the cytosolic core translocates to the membrane for association with the catalytic core for functional activation of Nox. Immunologic localization and functional regulation of Nox have been described in clonal β-cells and in rat and human islets (10–13).

Bottom Line: Levels of phosphorylated p47(phox), active Rac1, Nox activity, ROS generation, Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) 1/2 phosphorylation, and caspase-3 activity were significantly higher in the ZDF islets than the lean control rat islets.Lastly, in a manner akin to the ZDF diabetic rat islets, Rac1 expression, JNK1/2, and caspase-3 activation were also significantly increased in diabetic human islets.We provide the first in vitro and in vivo evidence in support of an accelerated Rac1-Nox-ROS-JNK1/2 signaling pathway in the islet β-cell leading to the onset of mitochondrial dysregulation in diabetes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Eugene Applebaum College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Detroit, Michigan, USA.

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine the subunit expression and functional activation of phagocyte-like NADPH oxidase (Nox), reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and caspase-3 activation in the Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat and diabetic human islets.

Research design and methods: Expression of core components of Nox was quantitated by Western blotting and densitometry. ROS levels were quantitated by the 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate method. Rac1 activation was quantitated using the gold-labeled immunosorbent assay kit.

Results: Levels of phosphorylated p47(phox), active Rac1, Nox activity, ROS generation, Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) 1/2 phosphorylation, and caspase-3 activity were significantly higher in the ZDF islets than the lean control rat islets. Chronic exposure of INS 832/13 cells to glucolipotoxic conditions resulted in increased JNK1/2 phosphorylation and caspase-3 activity; such effects were largely reversed by SP600125, a selective inhibitor of JNK. Incubation of normal human islets with high glucose also increased the activation of Rac1 and Nox. Lastly, in a manner akin to the ZDF diabetic rat islets, Rac1 expression, JNK1/2, and caspase-3 activation were also significantly increased in diabetic human islets.

Conclusions: We provide the first in vitro and in vivo evidence in support of an accelerated Rac1-Nox-ROS-JNK1/2 signaling pathway in the islet β-cell leading to the onset of mitochondrial dysregulation in diabetes.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus