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Literacy Affects Spoken Language in a Non-Linguistic Task: An ERP Study.

Perre L, Bertrand D, Ziegler JC - Front Psychol (2011)

Bottom Line: Nevertheless, despite the non-linguistic nature of the task, we replicated the consistency effect that has been previously reported in lexical decision and semantic tasks (i.e., inconsistent words produce more negative ERPs than consistent words as early as 300 ms after the onset of the spoken word).These results clearly suggest that orthography automatically influences word perception in normal listening even if there is no strategic benefit to do so.The results are explained in terms of orthographic restructuring of phonological representations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratoire de Psychologie Cognitive, Université Lille Nord de France Lille, France.

ABSTRACT
It is now commonly accepted that orthographic information influences spoken word recognition in a variety of laboratory tasks (lexical decision, semantic categorization, gender decision). However, it remains a hotly debated issue whether or not orthography would influence normal word perception in passive listening. That is, the argument has been made that orthography might only be activated in laboratory tasks that require lexical or semantic access in some form or another. It is possible that these rather "unnatural" tasks invite participants to use orthographic information in a strategic way to improve task performance. To put the strategy account to rest, we conducted an event-related brain potential (ERP) study, in which participants were asked to detect a 500-ms-long noise burst that appeared on 25% of the trials (Go trials). In the NoGo trials, we presented spoken words that were orthographically consistent or inconsistent. Thus, lexical and/or semantic processing was not required in this task and there was no strategic benefit in computing orthography to perform this task. Nevertheless, despite the non-linguistic nature of the task, we replicated the consistency effect that has been previously reported in lexical decision and semantic tasks (i.e., inconsistent words produce more negative ERPs than consistent words as early as 300 ms after the onset of the spoken word). These results clearly suggest that orthography automatically influences word perception in normal listening even if there is no strategic benefit to do so. The results are explained in terms of orthographic restructuring of phonological representations.

No MeSH data available.


Electrode montage schematic (standard 10–10 system) used in the ERP analysis.
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Figure 1: Electrode montage schematic (standard 10–10 system) used in the ERP analysis.

Mentions: Continuous EEG was recorded from 64 Ag/AgCl active electrodes held in place on the scalp by an elastic cap (Electro-Cap International, Eaton, OH, USA). As illustrated in Figure 1, the electrode montage included 10 midline sites and 27 sites over each hemisphere (American Clinical Neurophysiology Society, 2006). Two additional electrodes (CMS/DRL nearby Pz) were used as an online reference (for a complete description, see www.biosemi.com; Schutter et al., 2006). Six other electrodes were attached over the left and right mastoids, below the right and left eyes (for monitoring vertical eye movements and blinks), at the corner of the right and left eyes (for monitoring horizontal eye movements). Bioelectrical signals were amplified using an ActiveTwo Biosemi amplifier (DC-67 Hz bandpass, 3 dB/octave) and were continuously sampled (24 bit sampling) at a rate of 256 Hz throughout the experiment. EEG was filtered off-line (1 Hz High-pass, 40 Hz low-pass) and the signal from the left mastoid electrode was used off-line to re-reference the scalp recordings.


Literacy Affects Spoken Language in a Non-Linguistic Task: An ERP Study.

Perre L, Bertrand D, Ziegler JC - Front Psychol (2011)

Electrode montage schematic (standard 10–10 system) used in the ERP analysis.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3198050&req=5

Figure 1: Electrode montage schematic (standard 10–10 system) used in the ERP analysis.
Mentions: Continuous EEG was recorded from 64 Ag/AgCl active electrodes held in place on the scalp by an elastic cap (Electro-Cap International, Eaton, OH, USA). As illustrated in Figure 1, the electrode montage included 10 midline sites and 27 sites over each hemisphere (American Clinical Neurophysiology Society, 2006). Two additional electrodes (CMS/DRL nearby Pz) were used as an online reference (for a complete description, see www.biosemi.com; Schutter et al., 2006). Six other electrodes were attached over the left and right mastoids, below the right and left eyes (for monitoring vertical eye movements and blinks), at the corner of the right and left eyes (for monitoring horizontal eye movements). Bioelectrical signals were amplified using an ActiveTwo Biosemi amplifier (DC-67 Hz bandpass, 3 dB/octave) and were continuously sampled (24 bit sampling) at a rate of 256 Hz throughout the experiment. EEG was filtered off-line (1 Hz High-pass, 40 Hz low-pass) and the signal from the left mastoid electrode was used off-line to re-reference the scalp recordings.

Bottom Line: Nevertheless, despite the non-linguistic nature of the task, we replicated the consistency effect that has been previously reported in lexical decision and semantic tasks (i.e., inconsistent words produce more negative ERPs than consistent words as early as 300 ms after the onset of the spoken word).These results clearly suggest that orthography automatically influences word perception in normal listening even if there is no strategic benefit to do so.The results are explained in terms of orthographic restructuring of phonological representations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratoire de Psychologie Cognitive, Université Lille Nord de France Lille, France.

ABSTRACT
It is now commonly accepted that orthographic information influences spoken word recognition in a variety of laboratory tasks (lexical decision, semantic categorization, gender decision). However, it remains a hotly debated issue whether or not orthography would influence normal word perception in passive listening. That is, the argument has been made that orthography might only be activated in laboratory tasks that require lexical or semantic access in some form or another. It is possible that these rather "unnatural" tasks invite participants to use orthographic information in a strategic way to improve task performance. To put the strategy account to rest, we conducted an event-related brain potential (ERP) study, in which participants were asked to detect a 500-ms-long noise burst that appeared on 25% of the trials (Go trials). In the NoGo trials, we presented spoken words that were orthographically consistent or inconsistent. Thus, lexical and/or semantic processing was not required in this task and there was no strategic benefit in computing orthography to perform this task. Nevertheless, despite the non-linguistic nature of the task, we replicated the consistency effect that has been previously reported in lexical decision and semantic tasks (i.e., inconsistent words produce more negative ERPs than consistent words as early as 300 ms after the onset of the spoken word). These results clearly suggest that orthography automatically influences word perception in normal listening even if there is no strategic benefit to do so. The results are explained in terms of orthographic restructuring of phonological representations.

No MeSH data available.