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Reducing infections through nanotechnology and nanoparticles.

Taylor E, Webster TJ - Int J Nanomedicine (2011)

Bottom Line: The expansion of bacterial antibiotic resistance is a growing problem today.In addition, concerns about the spread of bacterial genetic tolerance to antibiotics, such as that found in multiple drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), have significantly increased of late.This review article will first examine in detail the mechanisms and applications of some of these nanoparticles, then follow with some recent material designs utilizing nanotechnology that are centered on fighting medical device infections.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI 02917, USA.

ABSTRACT
The expansion of bacterial antibiotic resistance is a growing problem today. When medical devices are inserted into the body, it becomes especially difficult for the body to clear robustly adherent antibiotic-resistant biofilm infections. In addition, concerns about the spread of bacterial genetic tolerance to antibiotics, such as that found in multiple drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), have significantly increased of late. As a growing direction in biomaterial design, nanomaterials (materials with at least one dimension less than 100 nm) may potentially prevent bacterial functions that lead to infections. As a first step in this direction, various nanoparticles have been explored for improving bacteria and biofilm penetration, generating reactive oxygen species, and killing bacteria, potentially providing a novel method for fighting infections that is nondrug related. This review article will first examine in detail the mechanisms and applications of some of these nanoparticles, then follow with some recent material designs utilizing nanotechnology that are centered on fighting medical device infections.

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Staphylococcus aureus biofilm penetration by cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) (A) and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) (B), analyzed by confocal fluorescence microscopy and Prussian blue histology stains for iron, respectively. (A) S. aureus biofilm penetrated by a CCMV nanoplatform (green fluorescence in micrograph) demonstrating a penetration depth of 17.6 μm during an 80-minute exposure (main panel shows the top view of the biofilm, and the right and bottom panels are cross-sectional views showing CCMV penetration depth)40 (scale bar: 30 μm). (B) Bulk penetration of SPION into an S. aureus biofilm cannot be observed without magnetic field exposure for 1 hour (magnetic field time zero; t = 0), and is enhanced through application of a magnetic field (magnetic field time 20, 40, or 60 minutes; t = 20, 40, or 60).Note: A is reprinted from Chemistry and Biology, 14/4, Suci PA, Berglund DL, Liepold L, et al, High-density targeting of a viral multifunctional nanoplatform to a pathogenic, biofilm-forming bacterium, 387–398, 2007, with permission from Elsevier.
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f4-ijn-6-1463: Staphylococcus aureus biofilm penetration by cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) (A) and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) (B), analyzed by confocal fluorescence microscopy and Prussian blue histology stains for iron, respectively. (A) S. aureus biofilm penetrated by a CCMV nanoplatform (green fluorescence in micrograph) demonstrating a penetration depth of 17.6 μm during an 80-minute exposure (main panel shows the top view of the biofilm, and the right and bottom panels are cross-sectional views showing CCMV penetration depth)40 (scale bar: 30 μm). (B) Bulk penetration of SPION into an S. aureus biofilm cannot be observed without magnetic field exposure for 1 hour (magnetic field time zero; t = 0), and is enhanced through application of a magnetic field (magnetic field time 20, 40, or 60 minutes; t = 20, 40, or 60).Note: A is reprinted from Chemistry and Biology, 14/4, Suci PA, Berglund DL, Liepold L, et al, High-density targeting of a viral multifunctional nanoplatform to a pathogenic, biofilm-forming bacterium, 387–398, 2007, with permission from Elsevier.

Mentions: Selective targeting of nanoparticles to an infection site minimizes uptake by surrounding tissues and decreases exposure of nonpathogenic bacterial flora (altering the balance of natural flora that would exacerbate virulent bacterial growth). Chemical targeting is highly specific and requires identification of an epitope (such as a molecule or protein) in the bacterial biofilm for nanoparticle delivery. In particular, Suci et al found that S. aureus biofilm targeting could be achieved through the use of a viral nanoparticle, cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), coated with antibodies to protein A (which is a S. aureus surface protein and virulence factor).40 It was found that CCMV bound to the surface of S. aureus in biofilms (~30 μm thick), penetrated 17.6 (standard deviation 3.3) μm during an 80-minute exposure (Figure 4A).40 The cage-like protein structure of CCMV could simultaneously be loaded with the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent gadolinium (Gd) achieving a concentration of 1.8 × 105 Gd atoms per cell, as determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.40


Reducing infections through nanotechnology and nanoparticles.

Taylor E, Webster TJ - Int J Nanomedicine (2011)

Staphylococcus aureus biofilm penetration by cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) (A) and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) (B), analyzed by confocal fluorescence microscopy and Prussian blue histology stains for iron, respectively. (A) S. aureus biofilm penetrated by a CCMV nanoplatform (green fluorescence in micrograph) demonstrating a penetration depth of 17.6 μm during an 80-minute exposure (main panel shows the top view of the biofilm, and the right and bottom panels are cross-sectional views showing CCMV penetration depth)40 (scale bar: 30 μm). (B) Bulk penetration of SPION into an S. aureus biofilm cannot be observed without magnetic field exposure for 1 hour (magnetic field time zero; t = 0), and is enhanced through application of a magnetic field (magnetic field time 20, 40, or 60 minutes; t = 20, 40, or 60).Note: A is reprinted from Chemistry and Biology, 14/4, Suci PA, Berglund DL, Liepold L, et al, High-density targeting of a viral multifunctional nanoplatform to a pathogenic, biofilm-forming bacterium, 387–398, 2007, with permission from Elsevier.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3141873&req=5

f4-ijn-6-1463: Staphylococcus aureus biofilm penetration by cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) (A) and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) (B), analyzed by confocal fluorescence microscopy and Prussian blue histology stains for iron, respectively. (A) S. aureus biofilm penetrated by a CCMV nanoplatform (green fluorescence in micrograph) demonstrating a penetration depth of 17.6 μm during an 80-minute exposure (main panel shows the top view of the biofilm, and the right and bottom panels are cross-sectional views showing CCMV penetration depth)40 (scale bar: 30 μm). (B) Bulk penetration of SPION into an S. aureus biofilm cannot be observed without magnetic field exposure for 1 hour (magnetic field time zero; t = 0), and is enhanced through application of a magnetic field (magnetic field time 20, 40, or 60 minutes; t = 20, 40, or 60).Note: A is reprinted from Chemistry and Biology, 14/4, Suci PA, Berglund DL, Liepold L, et al, High-density targeting of a viral multifunctional nanoplatform to a pathogenic, biofilm-forming bacterium, 387–398, 2007, with permission from Elsevier.
Mentions: Selective targeting of nanoparticles to an infection site minimizes uptake by surrounding tissues and decreases exposure of nonpathogenic bacterial flora (altering the balance of natural flora that would exacerbate virulent bacterial growth). Chemical targeting is highly specific and requires identification of an epitope (such as a molecule or protein) in the bacterial biofilm for nanoparticle delivery. In particular, Suci et al found that S. aureus biofilm targeting could be achieved through the use of a viral nanoparticle, cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), coated with antibodies to protein A (which is a S. aureus surface protein and virulence factor).40 It was found that CCMV bound to the surface of S. aureus in biofilms (~30 μm thick), penetrated 17.6 (standard deviation 3.3) μm during an 80-minute exposure (Figure 4A).40 The cage-like protein structure of CCMV could simultaneously be loaded with the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent gadolinium (Gd) achieving a concentration of 1.8 × 105 Gd atoms per cell, as determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.40

Bottom Line: The expansion of bacterial antibiotic resistance is a growing problem today.In addition, concerns about the spread of bacterial genetic tolerance to antibiotics, such as that found in multiple drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), have significantly increased of late.This review article will first examine in detail the mechanisms and applications of some of these nanoparticles, then follow with some recent material designs utilizing nanotechnology that are centered on fighting medical device infections.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI 02917, USA.

ABSTRACT
The expansion of bacterial antibiotic resistance is a growing problem today. When medical devices are inserted into the body, it becomes especially difficult for the body to clear robustly adherent antibiotic-resistant biofilm infections. In addition, concerns about the spread of bacterial genetic tolerance to antibiotics, such as that found in multiple drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), have significantly increased of late. As a growing direction in biomaterial design, nanomaterials (materials with at least one dimension less than 100 nm) may potentially prevent bacterial functions that lead to infections. As a first step in this direction, various nanoparticles have been explored for improving bacteria and biofilm penetration, generating reactive oxygen species, and killing bacteria, potentially providing a novel method for fighting infections that is nondrug related. This review article will first examine in detail the mechanisms and applications of some of these nanoparticles, then follow with some recent material designs utilizing nanotechnology that are centered on fighting medical device infections.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus