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Application of supercritical antisolvent method in drug encapsulation: a review.

Kalani M, Yunus R - Int J Nanomedicine (2011)

Bottom Line: The review focuses on the application of supercritical fluids as antisolvents in the pharmaceutical field and demonstrates the supercritical antisolvent method in the use of drug encapsulation.The main factors for choosing the solvent and biodegradable polymer to produce fine particles to ensure effective drug delivery are emphasized and the effect of polymer structure on drug encapsulation is illustrated.The review also demonstrates the drug release mechanism and polymeric controlled release system, and discusses the effects of the various conditions in the process, such as pressure, temperature, concentration, chemical compositions (organic solvents, drug, and biodegradable polymer), nozzle geometry, CO(2) flow rate, and the liquid phase flow rate on particle size and its distribution.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. mahshid.kalani@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The review focuses on the application of supercritical fluids as antisolvents in the pharmaceutical field and demonstrates the supercritical antisolvent method in the use of drug encapsulation. The main factors for choosing the solvent and biodegradable polymer to produce fine particles to ensure effective drug delivery are emphasized and the effect of polymer structure on drug encapsulation is illustrated. The review also demonstrates the drug release mechanism and polymeric controlled release system, and discusses the effects of the various conditions in the process, such as pressure, temperature, concentration, chemical compositions (organic solvents, drug, and biodegradable polymer), nozzle geometry, CO(2) flow rate, and the liquid phase flow rate on particle size and its distribution.

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Triple point phase diagram for pure CO2.7,14Note: Adapted with permission from: Ginty PJ, Whitaker MJ, Shakesheff KM, Howdle SM. Drug delivery goes supercritical. Materials Today. 2005;8(8) Suppl 1: 42–48. Copyright 2005 American Chemical Society; and: reprinted from International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol 364, Are pharmaceutics really going supercritical?, pages 176–187, copyright 2008, with permission from Elsevier.
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f1-ijn-6-1429: Triple point phase diagram for pure CO2.7,14Note: Adapted with permission from: Ginty PJ, Whitaker MJ, Shakesheff KM, Howdle SM. Drug delivery goes supercritical. Materials Today. 2005;8(8) Suppl 1: 42–48. Copyright 2005 American Chemical Society; and: reprinted from International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol 364, Are pharmaceutics really going supercritical?, pages 176–187, copyright 2008, with permission from Elsevier.

Mentions: A supercritical fluid is a solvent whose temperature and pressure are greater than its critical temperature and pressure, while it remains as a single phase, as shown in Figure 1.13 CO2 supercritical fluid is the best choice, from among the others available for pharmaceutical processes, as it is affordable, nontoxic, and inflammable. Further, it has high volatility, mild critical temperature (304°K), low critical pressure (7.38 MPa), low cohesive energy density, low polarizability per unit volume, and poor solubility for many polymers and drugs,8,10,13,15,16 and it has low viscosity like a gas, although its density is similar to that of a liquid. Around the critical point, its properties such as density, viscosity, solvency, and diffusivity can be manipulated by adjusting the pressure and temperature.13,14,17


Application of supercritical antisolvent method in drug encapsulation: a review.

Kalani M, Yunus R - Int J Nanomedicine (2011)

Triple point phase diagram for pure CO2.7,14Note: Adapted with permission from: Ginty PJ, Whitaker MJ, Shakesheff KM, Howdle SM. Drug delivery goes supercritical. Materials Today. 2005;8(8) Suppl 1: 42–48. Copyright 2005 American Chemical Society; and: reprinted from International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol 364, Are pharmaceutics really going supercritical?, pages 176–187, copyright 2008, with permission from Elsevier.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3141870&req=5

f1-ijn-6-1429: Triple point phase diagram for pure CO2.7,14Note: Adapted with permission from: Ginty PJ, Whitaker MJ, Shakesheff KM, Howdle SM. Drug delivery goes supercritical. Materials Today. 2005;8(8) Suppl 1: 42–48. Copyright 2005 American Chemical Society; and: reprinted from International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol 364, Are pharmaceutics really going supercritical?, pages 176–187, copyright 2008, with permission from Elsevier.
Mentions: A supercritical fluid is a solvent whose temperature and pressure are greater than its critical temperature and pressure, while it remains as a single phase, as shown in Figure 1.13 CO2 supercritical fluid is the best choice, from among the others available for pharmaceutical processes, as it is affordable, nontoxic, and inflammable. Further, it has high volatility, mild critical temperature (304°K), low critical pressure (7.38 MPa), low cohesive energy density, low polarizability per unit volume, and poor solubility for many polymers and drugs,8,10,13,15,16 and it has low viscosity like a gas, although its density is similar to that of a liquid. Around the critical point, its properties such as density, viscosity, solvency, and diffusivity can be manipulated by adjusting the pressure and temperature.13,14,17

Bottom Line: The review focuses on the application of supercritical fluids as antisolvents in the pharmaceutical field and demonstrates the supercritical antisolvent method in the use of drug encapsulation.The main factors for choosing the solvent and biodegradable polymer to produce fine particles to ensure effective drug delivery are emphasized and the effect of polymer structure on drug encapsulation is illustrated.The review also demonstrates the drug release mechanism and polymeric controlled release system, and discusses the effects of the various conditions in the process, such as pressure, temperature, concentration, chemical compositions (organic solvents, drug, and biodegradable polymer), nozzle geometry, CO(2) flow rate, and the liquid phase flow rate on particle size and its distribution.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. mahshid.kalani@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The review focuses on the application of supercritical fluids as antisolvents in the pharmaceutical field and demonstrates the supercritical antisolvent method in the use of drug encapsulation. The main factors for choosing the solvent and biodegradable polymer to produce fine particles to ensure effective drug delivery are emphasized and the effect of polymer structure on drug encapsulation is illustrated. The review also demonstrates the drug release mechanism and polymeric controlled release system, and discusses the effects of the various conditions in the process, such as pressure, temperature, concentration, chemical compositions (organic solvents, drug, and biodegradable polymer), nozzle geometry, CO(2) flow rate, and the liquid phase flow rate on particle size and its distribution.

Show MeSH