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Altering pyrroloquinoline quinone nutritional status modulates mitochondrial, lipid, and energy metabolism in rats.

Bauerly K, Harris C, Chowanadisai W, Graham J, Havel PJ, Tchaparian E, Satre M, Karliner JS, Rucker RB - PLoS ONE (2011)

Bottom Line: Although no striking differences in serum glucose, insulin, and free fatty acid levels were observed, energy expenditure was lower in PQQ- vs.Moreover, PQQ administration (i.p. at 4.5 mg/kg BW for 3 days) resulted in a greater than 2-fold decrease in plasma triglycerides during a 6-hour fast than saline administration in a rat model of type 2 diabetes.Collectively, these data demonstrate that PQQ deficiency impacts a number of parameters related to normal mitochondrial function.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Nutrition, University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
We have reported that pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) improves reproduction, neonatal development, and mitochondrial function in animals by mechanisms that involve mitochondrial related cell signaling pathways. To extend these observations, the influence of PQQ on energy and lipid relationships and apparent protection against ischemia reperfusion injury are described herein. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a nutritionally complete diet with PQQ added at either 0 (PQQ-) or 2 mg PQQ/Kg diet (PQQ+). Measurements included: 1) serum glucose and insulin, 2) total energy expenditure per metabolic body size (Wt(3/4)), 3) respiratory quotients (in the fed and fasted states), 4) changes in plasma lipids, 5) the relative mitochondrial amount in liver and heart, and 6) indices related to cardiac ischemia. For the latter, rats (PQQ- or PQQ+) were subjected to left anterior descending occlusions followed by 2 h of reperfusion to determine PQQ's influence on infarct size and myocardial tissue levels of malondialdehyde, an indicator of lipid peroxidation. Although no striking differences in serum glucose, insulin, and free fatty acid levels were observed, energy expenditure was lower in PQQ- vs. PQQ+ rats and energy expenditure (fed state) was correlated with the hepatic mitochondrial content. Elevations in plasma di- and triacylglyceride and β-hydroxybutryic acid concentrations were also observed in PQQ- rats vs. PQQ+ rats. Moreover, PQQ administration (i.p. at 4.5 mg/kg BW for 3 days) resulted in a greater than 2-fold decrease in plasma triglycerides during a 6-hour fast than saline administration in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Cardiac injury resulting from ischemia/reperfusion was more pronounced in PQQ- rats than in PQQ+ rats. Collectively, these data demonstrate that PQQ deficiency impacts a number of parameters related to normal mitochondrial function.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Serine palmityl transferase (SPT) mRNA expression in liver and heart and SPT functional activity levels in liver.Values are the means ± SEM (n = 5 per group). Although variable, rats fed PQQ− diets tended (p∼0.2–0.3) to have lower values for mRNA expression and activity (see Discussion).
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pone-0021779-g003: Serine palmityl transferase (SPT) mRNA expression in liver and heart and SPT functional activity levels in liver.Values are the means ± SEM (n = 5 per group). Although variable, rats fed PQQ− diets tended (p∼0.2–0.3) to have lower values for mRNA expression and activity (see Discussion).

Mentions: The qRT PCR data (Figure 2) indicated that PQQ deprivation caused perturbations in the levels of mRNA for most of the markers in liver and cardiac tissue with statistically significant changes in fatty acid binding protein, acyl CoA oxidase and methyl CoA racemase in cardiac tissue, but only for fatty acid binding protein and in liver. Perhaps owing to the apparent stability of the peroxisomal markers that were chosen and the stability of fatty acid binding protein, repletion with PQQ (−/+), had little effect on immediately reversing the effects of prior PQQ deficiency (see Discussion). The mRNA levels for serine palmitoyl transferase, as well as its functional activity were also decreased (PQQ− vs. PQQ+, p∼0.1, Figure 3). The decreases in SPT mRNA and functional activity paralleled the variable, but consistent decreases in plasma sphingomyelin in young and adult rats (cf. Table 2, Table S8, and Figure 1).


Altering pyrroloquinoline quinone nutritional status modulates mitochondrial, lipid, and energy metabolism in rats.

Bauerly K, Harris C, Chowanadisai W, Graham J, Havel PJ, Tchaparian E, Satre M, Karliner JS, Rucker RB - PLoS ONE (2011)

Serine palmityl transferase (SPT) mRNA expression in liver and heart and SPT functional activity levels in liver.Values are the means ± SEM (n = 5 per group). Although variable, rats fed PQQ− diets tended (p∼0.2–0.3) to have lower values for mRNA expression and activity (see Discussion).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3140972&req=5

pone-0021779-g003: Serine palmityl transferase (SPT) mRNA expression in liver and heart and SPT functional activity levels in liver.Values are the means ± SEM (n = 5 per group). Although variable, rats fed PQQ− diets tended (p∼0.2–0.3) to have lower values for mRNA expression and activity (see Discussion).
Mentions: The qRT PCR data (Figure 2) indicated that PQQ deprivation caused perturbations in the levels of mRNA for most of the markers in liver and cardiac tissue with statistically significant changes in fatty acid binding protein, acyl CoA oxidase and methyl CoA racemase in cardiac tissue, but only for fatty acid binding protein and in liver. Perhaps owing to the apparent stability of the peroxisomal markers that were chosen and the stability of fatty acid binding protein, repletion with PQQ (−/+), had little effect on immediately reversing the effects of prior PQQ deficiency (see Discussion). The mRNA levels for serine palmitoyl transferase, as well as its functional activity were also decreased (PQQ− vs. PQQ+, p∼0.1, Figure 3). The decreases in SPT mRNA and functional activity paralleled the variable, but consistent decreases in plasma sphingomyelin in young and adult rats (cf. Table 2, Table S8, and Figure 1).

Bottom Line: Although no striking differences in serum glucose, insulin, and free fatty acid levels were observed, energy expenditure was lower in PQQ- vs.Moreover, PQQ administration (i.p. at 4.5 mg/kg BW for 3 days) resulted in a greater than 2-fold decrease in plasma triglycerides during a 6-hour fast than saline administration in a rat model of type 2 diabetes.Collectively, these data demonstrate that PQQ deficiency impacts a number of parameters related to normal mitochondrial function.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Nutrition, University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
We have reported that pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) improves reproduction, neonatal development, and mitochondrial function in animals by mechanisms that involve mitochondrial related cell signaling pathways. To extend these observations, the influence of PQQ on energy and lipid relationships and apparent protection against ischemia reperfusion injury are described herein. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a nutritionally complete diet with PQQ added at either 0 (PQQ-) or 2 mg PQQ/Kg diet (PQQ+). Measurements included: 1) serum glucose and insulin, 2) total energy expenditure per metabolic body size (Wt(3/4)), 3) respiratory quotients (in the fed and fasted states), 4) changes in plasma lipids, 5) the relative mitochondrial amount in liver and heart, and 6) indices related to cardiac ischemia. For the latter, rats (PQQ- or PQQ+) were subjected to left anterior descending occlusions followed by 2 h of reperfusion to determine PQQ's influence on infarct size and myocardial tissue levels of malondialdehyde, an indicator of lipid peroxidation. Although no striking differences in serum glucose, insulin, and free fatty acid levels were observed, energy expenditure was lower in PQQ- vs. PQQ+ rats and energy expenditure (fed state) was correlated with the hepatic mitochondrial content. Elevations in plasma di- and triacylglyceride and β-hydroxybutryic acid concentrations were also observed in PQQ- rats vs. PQQ+ rats. Moreover, PQQ administration (i.p. at 4.5 mg/kg BW for 3 days) resulted in a greater than 2-fold decrease in plasma triglycerides during a 6-hour fast than saline administration in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Cardiac injury resulting from ischemia/reperfusion was more pronounced in PQQ- rats than in PQQ+ rats. Collectively, these data demonstrate that PQQ deficiency impacts a number of parameters related to normal mitochondrial function.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus