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Governance factors in the identification of global conservation priorities for mammals.

Eklund J, Arponen A, Visconti P, Cabeza M - Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci. (2011)

Bottom Line: But many of these countries have poor governance, which may result in ineffective conservation or in larger costs than initially expected.We use data on Control of Corruption (Worldwide Governance Indicators project) as an indicator of governance effectiveness, and gross domestic product per capita as an indicator of cost.Overall, the analysis supports the concentration of conservation efforts in most of the regions generally considered of high priority, but stresses the need for different conservation approaches in different continents owing to spatial patterns of governance and economic development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Metapopulation Research Group, Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, , PO Box 65, 00014 Helsinki, Finland.

ABSTRACT
Global conservation priorities have often been identified based on the combination of species richness and threat information. With the development of the field of systematic conservation planning, more attention has been given to conservation costs. This leads to prioritizing developing countries, where costs are generally low and biodiversity is high. But many of these countries have poor governance, which may result in ineffective conservation or in larger costs than initially expected. We explore how the consideration of governance affects the selection of global conservation priorities for the world's mammals in a complementarity-based conservation prioritization. We use data on Control of Corruption (Worldwide Governance Indicators project) as an indicator of governance effectiveness, and gross domestic product per capita as an indicator of cost. We show that, while core areas with high levels of endemism are always selected as important regardless of governance and cost values, there are clear regional differences in selected sites when biodiversity, cost or governance are taken into account separately. Overall, the analysis supports the concentration of conservation efforts in most of the regions generally considered of high priority, but stresses the need for different conservation approaches in different continents owing to spatial patterns of governance and economic development.

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Species representation in all eight scenarios. (a) Mean proportion of species' distributions remaining protected at decreasing fractions of area protected. (b) number of species entirely unprotected at decreasing fractions of area protected. Note that the insets show a magnification corresponding to a particular range of percentage of landscape protected, between 20–30% for (a) and 0–0.5% in (b) (see the range of values on top of the inset). Dashed line, biodiversity only; long dashed line, governance only; solid line, economic 0.1–governance 0.9; dotted line, economic 0.25–governance 0.75; solid line with filled circles, economic 0.5–governance 0.5; solid line with open circles, economic 0.75–governance 0.25; solid line with filled inverted triangles, economic 0.9–governance 0.1; solid line with open inverted triangles, economic cost only.
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RSTB20110114F3: Species representation in all eight scenarios. (a) Mean proportion of species' distributions remaining protected at decreasing fractions of area protected. (b) number of species entirely unprotected at decreasing fractions of area protected. Note that the insets show a magnification corresponding to a particular range of percentage of landscape protected, between 20–30% for (a) and 0–0.5% in (b) (see the range of values on top of the inset). Dashed line, biodiversity only; long dashed line, governance only; solid line, economic 0.1–governance 0.9; dotted line, economic 0.25–governance 0.75; solid line with filled circles, economic 0.5–governance 0.5; solid line with open circles, economic 0.75–governance 0.25; solid line with filled inverted triangles, economic 0.9–governance 0.1; solid line with open inverted triangles, economic cost only.

Mentions: There were small differences in the protection levels of species across scenarios (figure 3a,b). In terms of average proportion of the distribution protected, the GDP per capita-constrained solution achieved smallest overall coverage of species distributions, while the most extreme governance penalty resulted in intermediate levels. The intermediate Economic cost–Governance scenarios performed very similarly to the biodiversity-only solution. Nonetheless, all solutions achieved coverage of all species when 5 per cent or more of the world' terrestrial surface was protected (figure 3b). The Biodiversity-only scenario retained species furthest, as the fraction of protected area decreased, with most other scenarios achieving very similar results. Only the GDP per capita-constrained solution differed notably from other schemes, starting to lose species coverage at larger fractions of area protected (figure 3b).Figure 3.


Governance factors in the identification of global conservation priorities for mammals.

Eklund J, Arponen A, Visconti P, Cabeza M - Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci. (2011)

Species representation in all eight scenarios. (a) Mean proportion of species' distributions remaining protected at decreasing fractions of area protected. (b) number of species entirely unprotected at decreasing fractions of area protected. Note that the insets show a magnification corresponding to a particular range of percentage of landscape protected, between 20–30% for (a) and 0–0.5% in (b) (see the range of values on top of the inset). Dashed line, biodiversity only; long dashed line, governance only; solid line, economic 0.1–governance 0.9; dotted line, economic 0.25–governance 0.75; solid line with filled circles, economic 0.5–governance 0.5; solid line with open circles, economic 0.75–governance 0.25; solid line with filled inverted triangles, economic 0.9–governance 0.1; solid line with open inverted triangles, economic cost only.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3140735&req=5

RSTB20110114F3: Species representation in all eight scenarios. (a) Mean proportion of species' distributions remaining protected at decreasing fractions of area protected. (b) number of species entirely unprotected at decreasing fractions of area protected. Note that the insets show a magnification corresponding to a particular range of percentage of landscape protected, between 20–30% for (a) and 0–0.5% in (b) (see the range of values on top of the inset). Dashed line, biodiversity only; long dashed line, governance only; solid line, economic 0.1–governance 0.9; dotted line, economic 0.25–governance 0.75; solid line with filled circles, economic 0.5–governance 0.5; solid line with open circles, economic 0.75–governance 0.25; solid line with filled inverted triangles, economic 0.9–governance 0.1; solid line with open inverted triangles, economic cost only.
Mentions: There were small differences in the protection levels of species across scenarios (figure 3a,b). In terms of average proportion of the distribution protected, the GDP per capita-constrained solution achieved smallest overall coverage of species distributions, while the most extreme governance penalty resulted in intermediate levels. The intermediate Economic cost–Governance scenarios performed very similarly to the biodiversity-only solution. Nonetheless, all solutions achieved coverage of all species when 5 per cent or more of the world' terrestrial surface was protected (figure 3b). The Biodiversity-only scenario retained species furthest, as the fraction of protected area decreased, with most other scenarios achieving very similar results. Only the GDP per capita-constrained solution differed notably from other schemes, starting to lose species coverage at larger fractions of area protected (figure 3b).Figure 3.

Bottom Line: But many of these countries have poor governance, which may result in ineffective conservation or in larger costs than initially expected.We use data on Control of Corruption (Worldwide Governance Indicators project) as an indicator of governance effectiveness, and gross domestic product per capita as an indicator of cost.Overall, the analysis supports the concentration of conservation efforts in most of the regions generally considered of high priority, but stresses the need for different conservation approaches in different continents owing to spatial patterns of governance and economic development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Metapopulation Research Group, Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, , PO Box 65, 00014 Helsinki, Finland.

ABSTRACT
Global conservation priorities have often been identified based on the combination of species richness and threat information. With the development of the field of systematic conservation planning, more attention has been given to conservation costs. This leads to prioritizing developing countries, where costs are generally low and biodiversity is high. But many of these countries have poor governance, which may result in ineffective conservation or in larger costs than initially expected. We explore how the consideration of governance affects the selection of global conservation priorities for the world's mammals in a complementarity-based conservation prioritization. We use data on Control of Corruption (Worldwide Governance Indicators project) as an indicator of governance effectiveness, and gross domestic product per capita as an indicator of cost. We show that, while core areas with high levels of endemism are always selected as important regardless of governance and cost values, there are clear regional differences in selected sites when biodiversity, cost or governance are taken into account separately. Overall, the analysis supports the concentration of conservation efforts in most of the regions generally considered of high priority, but stresses the need for different conservation approaches in different continents owing to spatial patterns of governance and economic development.

Show MeSH