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To sleep, to strive, or both: how best to optimize memory.

Tucker MA, Tang SX, Uzoh A, Morgan A, Stickgold R - PLoS ONE (2011)

Bottom Line: Over an extended 24 hr interval we found 1) that an initial night of sleep partially protects memories from subsequent deterioration during wake, and 2) that sleep blocks further deterioration, and may even have a restorative effect on memory, when it follows a full day of wake.Interestingly, the benefit imparted to rewarded (relative to unrewarded) stimuli was equal for sleep and wake subjects, suggesting that the sleeping brain may not differentially process rewarded information, relative to wake.However, looking at the overall impact of sleep relative to reward in this protocol, it was apparent that sleep both imparted a stronger mnemonic boost than reward, and provided a benefit to memory regardless of whether it occurred in the first or the second 12 hrs following task training.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America. mtucker1@bidmc.harvard.edu

ABSTRACT
While numerous studies have shown that a night of sleep profits memory relative to wake, we still have little understanding about what factors mediate this effect of sleep. A clear understanding of the dynamics of this effect of sleep beyond the initial night of sleep is also lacking. Here, we examined the effect of extrinsic rewards on sleep-dependent declarative memory processing across 12 and 24 hr training-retest intervals. Subjects were either paid based on their performance at retest ($1 for each correct answer), or received a flat fee for participation. After a 12 hr interval we observed pronounced benefits of both sleep and reward on memory. Over an extended 24 hr interval we found 1) that an initial night of sleep partially protects memories from subsequent deterioration during wake, and 2) that sleep blocks further deterioration, and may even have a restorative effect on memory, when it follows a full day of wake. Interestingly, the benefit imparted to rewarded (relative to unrewarded) stimuli was equal for sleep and wake subjects, suggesting that the sleeping brain may not differentially process rewarded information, relative to wake. However, looking at the overall impact of sleep relative to reward in this protocol, it was apparent that sleep both imparted a stronger mnemonic boost than reward, and provided a benefit to memory regardless of whether it occurred in the first or the second 12 hrs following task training.

Show MeSH
Difference between recall of Rewarded and Unrewarded stimuli in the 12 hr Wake and Sleep subjects indicating the non-significant interaction between sleep and reward.Bars represent change in recall from initial testing (means±SEMs).
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pone-0021737-g005: Difference between recall of Rewarded and Unrewarded stimuli in the 12 hr Wake and Sleep subjects indicating the non-significant interaction between sleep and reward.Bars represent change in recall from initial testing (means±SEMs).

Mentions: Evaluating the relationship between sleep and reward at 12-hr retest, we found a non-significant interaction (F1,71 = .06, p = .82, η2p = .001), suggesting that sleep, compared to wake, does not preferentially process rewarded relative to unrewarded information (i.e., the difference in recall between rewarded and non-rewarded information did not differ between sleep and wake subjects; Figure 5).


To sleep, to strive, or both: how best to optimize memory.

Tucker MA, Tang SX, Uzoh A, Morgan A, Stickgold R - PLoS ONE (2011)

Difference between recall of Rewarded and Unrewarded stimuli in the 12 hr Wake and Sleep subjects indicating the non-significant interaction between sleep and reward.Bars represent change in recall from initial testing (means±SEMs).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3140493&req=5

pone-0021737-g005: Difference between recall of Rewarded and Unrewarded stimuli in the 12 hr Wake and Sleep subjects indicating the non-significant interaction between sleep and reward.Bars represent change in recall from initial testing (means±SEMs).
Mentions: Evaluating the relationship between sleep and reward at 12-hr retest, we found a non-significant interaction (F1,71 = .06, p = .82, η2p = .001), suggesting that sleep, compared to wake, does not preferentially process rewarded relative to unrewarded information (i.e., the difference in recall between rewarded and non-rewarded information did not differ between sleep and wake subjects; Figure 5).

Bottom Line: Over an extended 24 hr interval we found 1) that an initial night of sleep partially protects memories from subsequent deterioration during wake, and 2) that sleep blocks further deterioration, and may even have a restorative effect on memory, when it follows a full day of wake.Interestingly, the benefit imparted to rewarded (relative to unrewarded) stimuli was equal for sleep and wake subjects, suggesting that the sleeping brain may not differentially process rewarded information, relative to wake.However, looking at the overall impact of sleep relative to reward in this protocol, it was apparent that sleep both imparted a stronger mnemonic boost than reward, and provided a benefit to memory regardless of whether it occurred in the first or the second 12 hrs following task training.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America. mtucker1@bidmc.harvard.edu

ABSTRACT
While numerous studies have shown that a night of sleep profits memory relative to wake, we still have little understanding about what factors mediate this effect of sleep. A clear understanding of the dynamics of this effect of sleep beyond the initial night of sleep is also lacking. Here, we examined the effect of extrinsic rewards on sleep-dependent declarative memory processing across 12 and 24 hr training-retest intervals. Subjects were either paid based on their performance at retest ($1 for each correct answer), or received a flat fee for participation. After a 12 hr interval we observed pronounced benefits of both sleep and reward on memory. Over an extended 24 hr interval we found 1) that an initial night of sleep partially protects memories from subsequent deterioration during wake, and 2) that sleep blocks further deterioration, and may even have a restorative effect on memory, when it follows a full day of wake. Interestingly, the benefit imparted to rewarded (relative to unrewarded) stimuli was equal for sleep and wake subjects, suggesting that the sleeping brain may not differentially process rewarded information, relative to wake. However, looking at the overall impact of sleep relative to reward in this protocol, it was apparent that sleep both imparted a stronger mnemonic boost than reward, and provided a benefit to memory regardless of whether it occurred in the first or the second 12 hrs following task training.

Show MeSH