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Effect of surfactant and surfactant blends on pseudoternary phase diagram behavior of newly synthesized palm kernel oil esters.

Mahdi ES, Sakeena MH, Abdulkarim MF, Abdullah GZ, Sattar MA, Noor AM - Drug Des Devel Ther (2011)

Bottom Line: High solubilization capacity was obtained by Tween(®) 80 compared with other surfactants of Tween(®) series.High HLB blends of Tween(®) 80/Span(®) 85 and Tween(®) 80/Span(®) 80 at HLB 13.7 and 13.9, respectively, have better solubilization capacity compared with the lower HLB values of Tween(®) 80/Span(®) 80.The use of palm kernel oil esters can improve drug delivery and reduce the cost of cosmetics.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden, Penang, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT

Background: The purpose of this study was to select appropriate surfactants or blends of surfactants to study the ternary phase diagram behavior of newly introduced palm kernel oil esters.

Methods: Nonionic surfactant blends of Tween(®) and Tween(®)/Span(®) series were screened based on their solubilization capacity with water for palm kernel oil esters. Tween(®) 80 and five blends of Tween(®) 80/Span(®) 80 and Tween(®) 80/Span(®) 85 in the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) value range of 10.7-14.0 were selected to study the phase diagram behavior of palm kernel oil esters using the water titration method at room temperature.

Results: High solubilization capacity was obtained by Tween(®) 80 compared with other surfactants of Tween(®) series. High HLB blends of Tween(®) 80/Span(®) 85 and Tween(®) 80/Span(®) 80 at HLB 13.7 and 13.9, respectively, have better solubilization capacity compared with the lower HLB values of Tween(®) 80/Span(®) 80. All the selected blends of surfactants were formed as water-in-oil microemulsions, and other dispersion systems varied in size and geometrical layout in the triangles. The high solubilization capacity and larger areas of the water-in-oil microemulsion systems were due to the structural similarity between the lipophilic tail of Tween(®) 80 and the oleyl group of the palm kernel oil esters.

Conclusion: This study suggests that the phase diagram behavior of palm kernel oil esters, water, and nonionic surfactants is not only affected by the HLB value, but also by the structural similarity between palm kernel oil esters and the surfactant used. The information gathered in this study is useful for researchers and manufacturers interested in using palm kernel oil esters in pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparation. The use of palm kernel oil esters can improve drug delivery and reduce the cost of cosmetics.

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Complete schematic pseudoternary phase diagram formed by Tween® 80/Span® 80 blend at HLB 13.9, palm kernel oil esters and water at various component compositions.Abbreviations: HLB, hydrophilic-lipophilic balance; PKOEs, palm kernel oil esters; W/O, water-in-oil; EMG, emollient gel; ME, microemulsion; O/W, oil-in-water; LC, liquid crystalline; Surfact, surfactant; T, Tween®; S, Span®.
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f3-dddt-5-311: Complete schematic pseudoternary phase diagram formed by Tween® 80/Span® 80 blend at HLB 13.9, palm kernel oil esters and water at various component compositions.Abbreviations: HLB, hydrophilic-lipophilic balance; PKOEs, palm kernel oil esters; W/O, water-in-oil; EMG, emollient gel; ME, microemulsion; O/W, oil-in-water; LC, liquid crystalline; Surfact, surfactant; T, Tween®; S, Span®.

Mentions: Figures 3–6 show the behaviors of surfactant blends of Tween® 80/Span® 80 (with HLB values of 13.9, 12.9, 11.8, and 10.7), palm kernel oil esters, and water at various concentration levels. The dispersion systems formed by these mixtures reflect the nature and behavior of their component compositions. The dispersion systems in these phase diagrams differ geometrically from Tween® 80 phase diagram. They show much smaller areas of water-in-oil microemulsion compared with Tween® 80 (HLB 15.0). They also show variation in area for the water-in-oil microemulsion system and other types of dispersion. Tween® 80/Span® 80 blend at an HLB of 13.9 formed a large water-in-oil microemulsion area, followed by Tween® 80/Span® 80 at HLBs of 12.9, 11.8, and 10.7 (Figures 3–6). The smaller area of water-in-oil microemulsion is due to a lower HLB, which increases the lipophilic character of the surfactant blend.32 It is also clear from the solubilization capacity results that the Tween® 80/Span® 80 blend with an HLB of 13.9 is a stronger solubilizer for water in palm kernel oil esters than other blends of Tween® 80/Span® 80 with HLB values in the range of 12.9–10.7. The weak interaction between the oil and surfactant blends at lower HLB values for forming a reverse micelle system is due to the weaker solubilization of water at the interface in the presence of high percentages of lipophilic surfactant in the blends. This will lead to reduction of the large molecular packing ratio of Tween® 80 due to its insufficient quantity, and hence results in a small area for the reverse micelle system.26


Effect of surfactant and surfactant blends on pseudoternary phase diagram behavior of newly synthesized palm kernel oil esters.

Mahdi ES, Sakeena MH, Abdulkarim MF, Abdullah GZ, Sattar MA, Noor AM - Drug Des Devel Ther (2011)

Complete schematic pseudoternary phase diagram formed by Tween® 80/Span® 80 blend at HLB 13.9, palm kernel oil esters and water at various component compositions.Abbreviations: HLB, hydrophilic-lipophilic balance; PKOEs, palm kernel oil esters; W/O, water-in-oil; EMG, emollient gel; ME, microemulsion; O/W, oil-in-water; LC, liquid crystalline; Surfact, surfactant; T, Tween®; S, Span®.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3140288&req=5

f3-dddt-5-311: Complete schematic pseudoternary phase diagram formed by Tween® 80/Span® 80 blend at HLB 13.9, palm kernel oil esters and water at various component compositions.Abbreviations: HLB, hydrophilic-lipophilic balance; PKOEs, palm kernel oil esters; W/O, water-in-oil; EMG, emollient gel; ME, microemulsion; O/W, oil-in-water; LC, liquid crystalline; Surfact, surfactant; T, Tween®; S, Span®.
Mentions: Figures 3–6 show the behaviors of surfactant blends of Tween® 80/Span® 80 (with HLB values of 13.9, 12.9, 11.8, and 10.7), palm kernel oil esters, and water at various concentration levels. The dispersion systems formed by these mixtures reflect the nature and behavior of their component compositions. The dispersion systems in these phase diagrams differ geometrically from Tween® 80 phase diagram. They show much smaller areas of water-in-oil microemulsion compared with Tween® 80 (HLB 15.0). They also show variation in area for the water-in-oil microemulsion system and other types of dispersion. Tween® 80/Span® 80 blend at an HLB of 13.9 formed a large water-in-oil microemulsion area, followed by Tween® 80/Span® 80 at HLBs of 12.9, 11.8, and 10.7 (Figures 3–6). The smaller area of water-in-oil microemulsion is due to a lower HLB, which increases the lipophilic character of the surfactant blend.32 It is also clear from the solubilization capacity results that the Tween® 80/Span® 80 blend with an HLB of 13.9 is a stronger solubilizer for water in palm kernel oil esters than other blends of Tween® 80/Span® 80 with HLB values in the range of 12.9–10.7. The weak interaction between the oil and surfactant blends at lower HLB values for forming a reverse micelle system is due to the weaker solubilization of water at the interface in the presence of high percentages of lipophilic surfactant in the blends. This will lead to reduction of the large molecular packing ratio of Tween® 80 due to its insufficient quantity, and hence results in a small area for the reverse micelle system.26

Bottom Line: High solubilization capacity was obtained by Tween(®) 80 compared with other surfactants of Tween(®) series.High HLB blends of Tween(®) 80/Span(®) 85 and Tween(®) 80/Span(®) 80 at HLB 13.7 and 13.9, respectively, have better solubilization capacity compared with the lower HLB values of Tween(®) 80/Span(®) 80.The use of palm kernel oil esters can improve drug delivery and reduce the cost of cosmetics.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden, Penang, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT

Background: The purpose of this study was to select appropriate surfactants or blends of surfactants to study the ternary phase diagram behavior of newly introduced palm kernel oil esters.

Methods: Nonionic surfactant blends of Tween(®) and Tween(®)/Span(®) series were screened based on their solubilization capacity with water for palm kernel oil esters. Tween(®) 80 and five blends of Tween(®) 80/Span(®) 80 and Tween(®) 80/Span(®) 85 in the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) value range of 10.7-14.0 were selected to study the phase diagram behavior of palm kernel oil esters using the water titration method at room temperature.

Results: High solubilization capacity was obtained by Tween(®) 80 compared with other surfactants of Tween(®) series. High HLB blends of Tween(®) 80/Span(®) 85 and Tween(®) 80/Span(®) 80 at HLB 13.7 and 13.9, respectively, have better solubilization capacity compared with the lower HLB values of Tween(®) 80/Span(®) 80. All the selected blends of surfactants were formed as water-in-oil microemulsions, and other dispersion systems varied in size and geometrical layout in the triangles. The high solubilization capacity and larger areas of the water-in-oil microemulsion systems were due to the structural similarity between the lipophilic tail of Tween(®) 80 and the oleyl group of the palm kernel oil esters.

Conclusion: This study suggests that the phase diagram behavior of palm kernel oil esters, water, and nonionic surfactants is not only affected by the HLB value, but also by the structural similarity between palm kernel oil esters and the surfactant used. The information gathered in this study is useful for researchers and manufacturers interested in using palm kernel oil esters in pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparation. The use of palm kernel oil esters can improve drug delivery and reduce the cost of cosmetics.

Show MeSH