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Effect of surfactant and surfactant blends on pseudoternary phase diagram behavior of newly synthesized palm kernel oil esters.

Mahdi ES, Sakeena MH, Abdulkarim MF, Abdullah GZ, Sattar MA, Noor AM - Drug Des Devel Ther (2011)

Bottom Line: High solubilization capacity was obtained by Tween(®) 80 compared with other surfactants of Tween(®) series.High HLB blends of Tween(®) 80/Span(®) 85 and Tween(®) 80/Span(®) 80 at HLB 13.7 and 13.9, respectively, have better solubilization capacity compared with the lower HLB values of Tween(®) 80/Span(®) 80.The use of palm kernel oil esters can improve drug delivery and reduce the cost of cosmetics.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden, Penang, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT

Background: The purpose of this study was to select appropriate surfactants or blends of surfactants to study the ternary phase diagram behavior of newly introduced palm kernel oil esters.

Methods: Nonionic surfactant blends of Tween(®) and Tween(®)/Span(®) series were screened based on their solubilization capacity with water for palm kernel oil esters. Tween(®) 80 and five blends of Tween(®) 80/Span(®) 80 and Tween(®) 80/Span(®) 85 in the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) value range of 10.7-14.0 were selected to study the phase diagram behavior of palm kernel oil esters using the water titration method at room temperature.

Results: High solubilization capacity was obtained by Tween(®) 80 compared with other surfactants of Tween(®) series. High HLB blends of Tween(®) 80/Span(®) 85 and Tween(®) 80/Span(®) 80 at HLB 13.7 and 13.9, respectively, have better solubilization capacity compared with the lower HLB values of Tween(®) 80/Span(®) 80. All the selected blends of surfactants were formed as water-in-oil microemulsions, and other dispersion systems varied in size and geometrical layout in the triangles. The high solubilization capacity and larger areas of the water-in-oil microemulsion systems were due to the structural similarity between the lipophilic tail of Tween(®) 80 and the oleyl group of the palm kernel oil esters.

Conclusion: This study suggests that the phase diagram behavior of palm kernel oil esters, water, and nonionic surfactants is not only affected by the HLB value, but also by the structural similarity between palm kernel oil esters and the surfactant used. The information gathered in this study is useful for researchers and manufacturers interested in using palm kernel oil esters in pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparation. The use of palm kernel oil esters can improve drug delivery and reduce the cost of cosmetics.

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Complete schematic pseudoternary phase diagram formed by Tween® 80 (HLB 15), palm kernel oil esters and water mixtures at various component compositions.Abbreviations: HLB, hydrophilic-lipophilic balance; PKOEs, palm kernel oil esters; W/O, water-in-oil; EMG, emollient gel; ME, microemulsion; O/W, oil-in-water; LC, liquid crystalline; Surfact, surfactant.
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f2-dddt-5-311: Complete schematic pseudoternary phase diagram formed by Tween® 80 (HLB 15), palm kernel oil esters and water mixtures at various component compositions.Abbreviations: HLB, hydrophilic-lipophilic balance; PKOEs, palm kernel oil esters; W/O, water-in-oil; EMG, emollient gel; ME, microemulsion; O/W, oil-in-water; LC, liquid crystalline; Surfact, surfactant.

Mentions: Figure 2 shows a pseudoternary phase diagram for mixtures of palm kernel oil esters, Tween® 80, and water at various component compositions. All types of dispersions, including conventional water-in-oil and oil-in-water emulsions, water-in-oil and oil-in-water microemulsions, bicontinuous and transitional liquid crystalline structures with high swelling capacity, can be formed by Tween® 80 mixtures. A large area of clear isocratic solution (water-in-oil microemulsion) is formed at the oil surfactant (palm kernel oil esters-surfactant) axis A-B in oil-rich regions. The minimum content of Tween® 80 at an HLB of 15.0 formed in an isocratic system is 18.2%. This minimum content of surfactant in a microemulsion system is known as the surfactant solubilization capacity.22 The smaller the percentage of surfactant in a microemulsion system, the higher the solubilization capacity of the surfactant, the better the match of the oil and surfactant HLB, and hence the higher the stability of the product. Based on solubilization capacity, Tween® 80 was selected as the best single surfactant from the Tween® series in Table 1.


Effect of surfactant and surfactant blends on pseudoternary phase diagram behavior of newly synthesized palm kernel oil esters.

Mahdi ES, Sakeena MH, Abdulkarim MF, Abdullah GZ, Sattar MA, Noor AM - Drug Des Devel Ther (2011)

Complete schematic pseudoternary phase diagram formed by Tween® 80 (HLB 15), palm kernel oil esters and water mixtures at various component compositions.Abbreviations: HLB, hydrophilic-lipophilic balance; PKOEs, palm kernel oil esters; W/O, water-in-oil; EMG, emollient gel; ME, microemulsion; O/W, oil-in-water; LC, liquid crystalline; Surfact, surfactant.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3140288&req=5

f2-dddt-5-311: Complete schematic pseudoternary phase diagram formed by Tween® 80 (HLB 15), palm kernel oil esters and water mixtures at various component compositions.Abbreviations: HLB, hydrophilic-lipophilic balance; PKOEs, palm kernel oil esters; W/O, water-in-oil; EMG, emollient gel; ME, microemulsion; O/W, oil-in-water; LC, liquid crystalline; Surfact, surfactant.
Mentions: Figure 2 shows a pseudoternary phase diagram for mixtures of palm kernel oil esters, Tween® 80, and water at various component compositions. All types of dispersions, including conventional water-in-oil and oil-in-water emulsions, water-in-oil and oil-in-water microemulsions, bicontinuous and transitional liquid crystalline structures with high swelling capacity, can be formed by Tween® 80 mixtures. A large area of clear isocratic solution (water-in-oil microemulsion) is formed at the oil surfactant (palm kernel oil esters-surfactant) axis A-B in oil-rich regions. The minimum content of Tween® 80 at an HLB of 15.0 formed in an isocratic system is 18.2%. This minimum content of surfactant in a microemulsion system is known as the surfactant solubilization capacity.22 The smaller the percentage of surfactant in a microemulsion system, the higher the solubilization capacity of the surfactant, the better the match of the oil and surfactant HLB, and hence the higher the stability of the product. Based on solubilization capacity, Tween® 80 was selected as the best single surfactant from the Tween® series in Table 1.

Bottom Line: High solubilization capacity was obtained by Tween(®) 80 compared with other surfactants of Tween(®) series.High HLB blends of Tween(®) 80/Span(®) 85 and Tween(®) 80/Span(®) 80 at HLB 13.7 and 13.9, respectively, have better solubilization capacity compared with the lower HLB values of Tween(®) 80/Span(®) 80.The use of palm kernel oil esters can improve drug delivery and reduce the cost of cosmetics.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden, Penang, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT

Background: The purpose of this study was to select appropriate surfactants or blends of surfactants to study the ternary phase diagram behavior of newly introduced palm kernel oil esters.

Methods: Nonionic surfactant blends of Tween(®) and Tween(®)/Span(®) series were screened based on their solubilization capacity with water for palm kernel oil esters. Tween(®) 80 and five blends of Tween(®) 80/Span(®) 80 and Tween(®) 80/Span(®) 85 in the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) value range of 10.7-14.0 were selected to study the phase diagram behavior of palm kernel oil esters using the water titration method at room temperature.

Results: High solubilization capacity was obtained by Tween(®) 80 compared with other surfactants of Tween(®) series. High HLB blends of Tween(®) 80/Span(®) 85 and Tween(®) 80/Span(®) 80 at HLB 13.7 and 13.9, respectively, have better solubilization capacity compared with the lower HLB values of Tween(®) 80/Span(®) 80. All the selected blends of surfactants were formed as water-in-oil microemulsions, and other dispersion systems varied in size and geometrical layout in the triangles. The high solubilization capacity and larger areas of the water-in-oil microemulsion systems were due to the structural similarity between the lipophilic tail of Tween(®) 80 and the oleyl group of the palm kernel oil esters.

Conclusion: This study suggests that the phase diagram behavior of palm kernel oil esters, water, and nonionic surfactants is not only affected by the HLB value, but also by the structural similarity between palm kernel oil esters and the surfactant used. The information gathered in this study is useful for researchers and manufacturers interested in using palm kernel oil esters in pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparation. The use of palm kernel oil esters can improve drug delivery and reduce the cost of cosmetics.

Show MeSH