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Mechanical intervention for maintenance of cartilage and bone.

Sun HB, Cardoso L, Yokota H - Clin Med Insights Arthritis Musculoskelet Disord (2011)

Bottom Line: Interestingly, depending on loading conditions loads applied to the joint can be beneficial as well as harmful to skeletal maintenance and remodeling.Moderate loads to the synovial joint, for instance, suppress the expression levels of matrix metallproteinases (MMPs), while loads above a threshold tend to increase their destructive activities.Their unique characteristics and potential usages for maintenance of the articular cartilage and stimulation of bone remodeling are reviewed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Leni and Peter W. May Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA.

ABSTRACT
Mechanical loading provides indispensible stimuli for growth and development of the articular cartilage and bone. Interestingly, depending on loading conditions loads applied to the joint can be beneficial as well as harmful to skeletal maintenance and remodeling. Moderate loads to the synovial joint, for instance, suppress the expression levels of matrix metallproteinases (MMPs), while loads above a threshold tend to increase their destructive activities. This report focuses on two recently developed loading modalities from animal studies, joint motion and joint loading. Their unique characteristics and potential usages for maintenance of the articular cartilage and stimulation of bone remodeling are reviewed. Also described are biophysical and molecular mechanisms which likely are responsible for the load-driven maintenance of cartilage and bone, and a possibility of developing load-mediated treatments of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Joint loading. A) Experimental setup for knee loading using a mouse. B) Schematic illustration of knee loading.
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f2-cmamd-4-2011-065: Joint loading. A) Experimental setup for knee loading using a mouse. B) Schematic illustration of knee loading.

Mentions: In the joint loading modality, mild forces are applied in the medio-lateral direction in the form of cyclic loading, typically for 3–5 min per day at 1–20 Hz, to major synovial joints such as the knee (knee loading), elbow (elbow loading), and ankle (ankle loading)3,4 (Fig. 2). In the knee loading model, for instance, loads are transmitted to both the distal femur and the proximal tibia. Loading effects such as enhanced bone formation and accelerated fracture healing are observed throughout the lengths of the femur and the tibia.5 The required magnitude of loads for joint loading is in general smaller than that for axial loading (e.g. 0.5 N for elbow loading and 2–3 N for ulna axial loading in mice). Bone is less stiff in a lateral direction than an axial direction.


Mechanical intervention for maintenance of cartilage and bone.

Sun HB, Cardoso L, Yokota H - Clin Med Insights Arthritis Musculoskelet Disord (2011)

Joint loading. A) Experimental setup for knee loading using a mouse. B) Schematic illustration of knee loading.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3140275&req=5

f2-cmamd-4-2011-065: Joint loading. A) Experimental setup for knee loading using a mouse. B) Schematic illustration of knee loading.
Mentions: In the joint loading modality, mild forces are applied in the medio-lateral direction in the form of cyclic loading, typically for 3–5 min per day at 1–20 Hz, to major synovial joints such as the knee (knee loading), elbow (elbow loading), and ankle (ankle loading)3,4 (Fig. 2). In the knee loading model, for instance, loads are transmitted to both the distal femur and the proximal tibia. Loading effects such as enhanced bone formation and accelerated fracture healing are observed throughout the lengths of the femur and the tibia.5 The required magnitude of loads for joint loading is in general smaller than that for axial loading (e.g. 0.5 N for elbow loading and 2–3 N for ulna axial loading in mice). Bone is less stiff in a lateral direction than an axial direction.

Bottom Line: Interestingly, depending on loading conditions loads applied to the joint can be beneficial as well as harmful to skeletal maintenance and remodeling.Moderate loads to the synovial joint, for instance, suppress the expression levels of matrix metallproteinases (MMPs), while loads above a threshold tend to increase their destructive activities.Their unique characteristics and potential usages for maintenance of the articular cartilage and stimulation of bone remodeling are reviewed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Leni and Peter W. May Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA.

ABSTRACT
Mechanical loading provides indispensible stimuli for growth and development of the articular cartilage and bone. Interestingly, depending on loading conditions loads applied to the joint can be beneficial as well as harmful to skeletal maintenance and remodeling. Moderate loads to the synovial joint, for instance, suppress the expression levels of matrix metallproteinases (MMPs), while loads above a threshold tend to increase their destructive activities. This report focuses on two recently developed loading modalities from animal studies, joint motion and joint loading. Their unique characteristics and potential usages for maintenance of the articular cartilage and stimulation of bone remodeling are reviewed. Also described are biophysical and molecular mechanisms which likely are responsible for the load-driven maintenance of cartilage and bone, and a possibility of developing load-mediated treatments of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus