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Antimicrobial properties, antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds from six wild edible mushrooms of western ghats of Karnataka, India.

Ramesh Ch, Pattar MG - Pharmacognosy Res (2010)

Bottom Line: All the isolates showed high phenol and flavonoid content, but ascorbic acid content was found in traces.Antioxidant efficiency by inhibitory concentration on 1,1-Diphenly-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was found significant when compared to standard antioxidant like Buthylated hydroxyanisol (BHA).These results are discussed in relation to therapeutic value of the studied mushrooms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Mycology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Karnatak University, Dharwad 580 003, Karnataka, India.

ABSTRACT
Methanolic extracts of 6 wild edible mushrooms isolated from the Western Ghats of Karnataka were used in this study. Among the isolates (Lycoperdon perlatum, Cantharellus cibarius, Clavaria vermiculris, Ramaria formosa, Marasmius oreades, Pleurotus pulmonarius), only 4 showed satisfactory results. Quantitative analysis of bioactive components revealed that total phenols are the major bioactive component found in extracts of isolates expressed as mg of GAE per gram of fruit body, which ranged from 3.20 ± 0.05 mg/mL to 6.25 ± 0.08 mg/mL. Average concentration of flavonoid ranged from 0.40 ± 0.052 mg/mL to 2.54 ± 0.08 mg/mL; followed by very small concentration of ascorbic acid (range, 0.06 ± 0.01 mg/mL to 0.16 ± 0.01 mg/mL) in all the isolates. All the isolates showed high phenol and flavonoid content, but ascorbic acid content was found in traces. Antioxidant efficiency by inhibitory concentration on 1,1-Diphenly-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was found significant when compared to standard antioxidant like Buthylated hydroxyanisol (BHA). The concentration (IC(50)) ranged from 0.94 ± 0.27 mg/mL to 7.57 ± 0.21 mg/mL. Determination of antimicrobial activity profile of all the isolates tested against a panel of standard pathogenic bacteria and fungi indicated that the concentrations of bioactive components directly influence the antimicrobial capability of the isolates. Agar diffusion assay showed considerable activity against all bacteria. Minimum inhibitory concentration values of the extracts of 4 isolates showed that they are also active even in least concentrations. These results are discussed in relation to therapeutic value of the studied mushrooms.

No MeSH data available.


Bioactive components of methanolic extract of mushrooms Lp - Lycoperdon perlatum; Cc - Cantharellus cibarius; Cv - Clavaria vermiculris; Rf- Ramaria formosa; Mo - Marasmius oreades; Pp- Pleurotus pulmonarius; Vertical bars indicate standard error followed by alphabetic letters denotes significantly (P> 0.05) different
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Figure 1: Bioactive components of methanolic extract of mushrooms Lp - Lycoperdon perlatum; Cc - Cantharellus cibarius; Cv - Clavaria vermiculris; Rf- Ramaria formosa; Mo - Marasmius oreades; Pp- Pleurotus pulmonarius; Vertical bars indicate standard error followed by alphabetic letters denotes significantly (P> 0.05) different

Mentions: Figure 1 shows phenol, flavonoid and ascorbic acid concentrations of the isolates; total phenols are the major bioactive component found in extracts of isolates expressed as mg of GAE per gram of fruit body, which ranged from 3.20 ± 0.05 mg/mL to 6.25 ± 0.08 mg/mL. Average concentration of flavonoid ranged from 0.40 ± 0.052 mg/mL to 2.54 ± 0.08 mg/mL; followed by very small concentration of ascorbic acid (range, 0.06 ± 0.01 mg/mL to 0.16 ± 0.01 mg/mL) in all the isolates. The total phenolic compound amount was calculated to be quite high in M. conica ethanol extracts (41.93 ± 0.29 μg mg-1 pyrocatechol equivalent).[3] The total phenolic compound amount was calculated to be quite high for R. flava ethanol extracts (39.83 ± 0.32 μg mg-1 pyrocatechol equivalent). In contrast to this, the total flavonoid compound concentration was measured to be 8.27 ± 0.28 μg mg-1 quercetin equivalent.[12] Free radical scavenging (FRS) activity was compared with the standard phenolic, BHA, which gave an IC50 of >1.5 μg of equivalent phenol. T. heimii, T. mummiformis and B. edulis expressed very high activity; and Cantharellus cibarius with an IC50 of 0.23 mg/mL showed 10-fold lower activity compared to the collected sample Termitomyces heimii.[13] The total phenolic compound amount was calculated to be quite high for RD ethanol extract (47.01 ± 0.29 μg mg-1 pyrocatechol equivalent). According to Kim et al,[4] it is possible that the high inhibition value of RD extract is due to the high concentration of phenolic compounds. Total phenols were the major bioactive components found in the extracts, while ascorbic acid was found in small amounts (0.08-0.16 mg/g).[9] S. crispa, a medicinal mushroom, contained the largest total concentration of phenolic compounds (764 μg/g), while Agaricus bisporus was the edible species with the most phenolics (543 μg/g). Inonotus obliquus contained the largest total concentration of flavonoids (143 μg/g), while Phellinus linteus had no flavonoids.[14] The amount of total phenolic compounds of mycelium was the highest (P< 0.05) at 31.20 mg of GAE per g of mycelium, followed by oven-dried, freeze-dried and fresh fruit body. Total phenolic content of BHA was 417.84 ± 28.97 mg of GAE per g of BHA.[5] Bioactive components of all the six mushrooms were listed in Table 1 where total phenols ranged from 3.20 ± 0.05 mg/mL to 6.25 ± 0.08 mg/mL, total flavonoid ranged 0.40 ± 0.052mg/mL to 2.54 ± 0.08 mg/mL followed by ascorbic acid ranged 0.06 ± 0.01 mg/mL to0.16 ± 0.01 mg/mL. Higher contents of bioactive compounds were found in stage I (immature fruiting bodies) for L. deliciosus while for L. piperatus stage II (mature with immature spores) presented the highest content.[9]


Antimicrobial properties, antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds from six wild edible mushrooms of western ghats of Karnataka, India.

Ramesh Ch, Pattar MG - Pharmacognosy Res (2010)

Bioactive components of methanolic extract of mushrooms Lp - Lycoperdon perlatum; Cc - Cantharellus cibarius; Cv - Clavaria vermiculris; Rf- Ramaria formosa; Mo - Marasmius oreades; Pp- Pleurotus pulmonarius; Vertical bars indicate standard error followed by alphabetic letters denotes significantly (P> 0.05) different
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3140106&req=5

Figure 1: Bioactive components of methanolic extract of mushrooms Lp - Lycoperdon perlatum; Cc - Cantharellus cibarius; Cv - Clavaria vermiculris; Rf- Ramaria formosa; Mo - Marasmius oreades; Pp- Pleurotus pulmonarius; Vertical bars indicate standard error followed by alphabetic letters denotes significantly (P> 0.05) different
Mentions: Figure 1 shows phenol, flavonoid and ascorbic acid concentrations of the isolates; total phenols are the major bioactive component found in extracts of isolates expressed as mg of GAE per gram of fruit body, which ranged from 3.20 ± 0.05 mg/mL to 6.25 ± 0.08 mg/mL. Average concentration of flavonoid ranged from 0.40 ± 0.052 mg/mL to 2.54 ± 0.08 mg/mL; followed by very small concentration of ascorbic acid (range, 0.06 ± 0.01 mg/mL to 0.16 ± 0.01 mg/mL) in all the isolates. The total phenolic compound amount was calculated to be quite high in M. conica ethanol extracts (41.93 ± 0.29 μg mg-1 pyrocatechol equivalent).[3] The total phenolic compound amount was calculated to be quite high for R. flava ethanol extracts (39.83 ± 0.32 μg mg-1 pyrocatechol equivalent). In contrast to this, the total flavonoid compound concentration was measured to be 8.27 ± 0.28 μg mg-1 quercetin equivalent.[12] Free radical scavenging (FRS) activity was compared with the standard phenolic, BHA, which gave an IC50 of >1.5 μg of equivalent phenol. T. heimii, T. mummiformis and B. edulis expressed very high activity; and Cantharellus cibarius with an IC50 of 0.23 mg/mL showed 10-fold lower activity compared to the collected sample Termitomyces heimii.[13] The total phenolic compound amount was calculated to be quite high for RD ethanol extract (47.01 ± 0.29 μg mg-1 pyrocatechol equivalent). According to Kim et al,[4] it is possible that the high inhibition value of RD extract is due to the high concentration of phenolic compounds. Total phenols were the major bioactive components found in the extracts, while ascorbic acid was found in small amounts (0.08-0.16 mg/g).[9] S. crispa, a medicinal mushroom, contained the largest total concentration of phenolic compounds (764 μg/g), while Agaricus bisporus was the edible species with the most phenolics (543 μg/g). Inonotus obliquus contained the largest total concentration of flavonoids (143 μg/g), while Phellinus linteus had no flavonoids.[14] The amount of total phenolic compounds of mycelium was the highest (P< 0.05) at 31.20 mg of GAE per g of mycelium, followed by oven-dried, freeze-dried and fresh fruit body. Total phenolic content of BHA was 417.84 ± 28.97 mg of GAE per g of BHA.[5] Bioactive components of all the six mushrooms were listed in Table 1 where total phenols ranged from 3.20 ± 0.05 mg/mL to 6.25 ± 0.08 mg/mL, total flavonoid ranged 0.40 ± 0.052mg/mL to 2.54 ± 0.08 mg/mL followed by ascorbic acid ranged 0.06 ± 0.01 mg/mL to0.16 ± 0.01 mg/mL. Higher contents of bioactive compounds were found in stage I (immature fruiting bodies) for L. deliciosus while for L. piperatus stage II (mature with immature spores) presented the highest content.[9]

Bottom Line: All the isolates showed high phenol and flavonoid content, but ascorbic acid content was found in traces.Antioxidant efficiency by inhibitory concentration on 1,1-Diphenly-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was found significant when compared to standard antioxidant like Buthylated hydroxyanisol (BHA).These results are discussed in relation to therapeutic value of the studied mushrooms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Mycology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Karnatak University, Dharwad 580 003, Karnataka, India.

ABSTRACT
Methanolic extracts of 6 wild edible mushrooms isolated from the Western Ghats of Karnataka were used in this study. Among the isolates (Lycoperdon perlatum, Cantharellus cibarius, Clavaria vermiculris, Ramaria formosa, Marasmius oreades, Pleurotus pulmonarius), only 4 showed satisfactory results. Quantitative analysis of bioactive components revealed that total phenols are the major bioactive component found in extracts of isolates expressed as mg of GAE per gram of fruit body, which ranged from 3.20 ± 0.05 mg/mL to 6.25 ± 0.08 mg/mL. Average concentration of flavonoid ranged from 0.40 ± 0.052 mg/mL to 2.54 ± 0.08 mg/mL; followed by very small concentration of ascorbic acid (range, 0.06 ± 0.01 mg/mL to 0.16 ± 0.01 mg/mL) in all the isolates. All the isolates showed high phenol and flavonoid content, but ascorbic acid content was found in traces. Antioxidant efficiency by inhibitory concentration on 1,1-Diphenly-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was found significant when compared to standard antioxidant like Buthylated hydroxyanisol (BHA). The concentration (IC(50)) ranged from 0.94 ± 0.27 mg/mL to 7.57 ± 0.21 mg/mL. Determination of antimicrobial activity profile of all the isolates tested against a panel of standard pathogenic bacteria and fungi indicated that the concentrations of bioactive components directly influence the antimicrobial capability of the isolates. Agar diffusion assay showed considerable activity against all bacteria. Minimum inhibitory concentration values of the extracts of 4 isolates showed that they are also active even in least concentrations. These results are discussed in relation to therapeutic value of the studied mushrooms.

No MeSH data available.