Limits...
Evaluation of handheld assays for the detection of ricin and staphylococcal enterotoxin B in disinfected waters.

Wade MM, Biggs TD, Insalaco JM, Neuendorff LK, Bevilacqua VL, Schenning AM, Reilly LM, Shah SS, Conley EK, Emanuel PA, Zulich AW - Int J Microbiol (2011)

Bottom Line: Both ricin and SEB were detected by HHAs in formulated tap water at or below the suggested health effect levels of 455 ng/mL and 4.55 ng/mL, respectively.LODs for ricin increased in chlorinated water, but still remained below the suggested health effect level.In conclusion, the HHAs tested were less effective at detecting ricin and SEB in disinfected water, as currently configured.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, U.S. Army, RDECOM, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010, USA.

ABSTRACT
Development of a rapid field test is needed capable of determining if field supplies of water are safe to drink by the warfighter during a military operation. The present study sought to assess the effectiveness of handheld assays (HHAs) in detecting ricin and Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B (SEB) in water. Performance of HHAs was evaluated in formulated tap water with and without chlorine, reverse osmosis water (RO) with chlorine, and RO with bromine. Each matrix was prepared, spiked with ricin or SEB at multiple concentrations, and then loaded onto HHAs. HHAs were allowed to develop and then read visually. Limits of detection (LOD) were determined for all HHAs in each water type. Both ricin and SEB were detected by HHAs in formulated tap water at or below the suggested health effect levels of 455 ng/mL and 4.55 ng/mL, respectively. However, in brominated or chlorinated waters, LODs for SEB increased to approximately 2,500 ng/mL. LODs for ricin increased in chlorinated water, but still remained below the suggested health effect level. In brominated water, the LOD for ricin increased to approximately 2,500 ng/mL. In conclusion, the HHAs tested were less effective at detecting ricin and SEB in disinfected water, as currently configured.

No MeSH data available.


SDS-PAGE analysis of SEB treated with chlorine. Lane 1: molecular mass standards (in kilodaltons); lane 2: untreated control SEB after 1 min; lane 3: chlorine-treated SEB after 1 min; lane 4: untreated control SEB after 1 hour; lane 5: chlorine-treated SEB after 1 hour; lane 6: untreated control SEB after 24 hours; lane 7: chlorine-treated SEB after 24 hours. Arrows indicate 31 kDa molecular weight marker (top arrow) and 28 kDa SEB (bottom arrow).
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fig2: SDS-PAGE analysis of SEB treated with chlorine. Lane 1: molecular mass standards (in kilodaltons); lane 2: untreated control SEB after 1 min; lane 3: chlorine-treated SEB after 1 min; lane 4: untreated control SEB after 1 hour; lane 5: chlorine-treated SEB after 1 hour; lane 6: untreated control SEB after 24 hours; lane 7: chlorine-treated SEB after 24 hours. Arrows indicate 31 kDa molecular weight marker (top arrow) and 28 kDa SEB (bottom arrow).

Mentions: SDS-PAGE was also performed to ascertain the overall effect of chemical reaction with chlorine on the molecular weight of SEB. For the treated and untreated SEB, 1.5 μg of SEB was loaded per well. As shown in Figure 2, for untreated SEB, the SEB was visible on the gel as a band with a molecular weight of approximately 28 kDa for all time points tested. For chlorine-treated SEB, no band was visible at the same molecular weight as untreated SEB for any of the time points tested. No other bands were visible for the chlorine-treated SEB.


Evaluation of handheld assays for the detection of ricin and staphylococcal enterotoxin B in disinfected waters.

Wade MM, Biggs TD, Insalaco JM, Neuendorff LK, Bevilacqua VL, Schenning AM, Reilly LM, Shah SS, Conley EK, Emanuel PA, Zulich AW - Int J Microbiol (2011)

SDS-PAGE analysis of SEB treated with chlorine. Lane 1: molecular mass standards (in kilodaltons); lane 2: untreated control SEB after 1 min; lane 3: chlorine-treated SEB after 1 min; lane 4: untreated control SEB after 1 hour; lane 5: chlorine-treated SEB after 1 hour; lane 6: untreated control SEB after 24 hours; lane 7: chlorine-treated SEB after 24 hours. Arrows indicate 31 kDa molecular weight marker (top arrow) and 28 kDa SEB (bottom arrow).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3139884&req=5

fig2: SDS-PAGE analysis of SEB treated with chlorine. Lane 1: molecular mass standards (in kilodaltons); lane 2: untreated control SEB after 1 min; lane 3: chlorine-treated SEB after 1 min; lane 4: untreated control SEB after 1 hour; lane 5: chlorine-treated SEB after 1 hour; lane 6: untreated control SEB after 24 hours; lane 7: chlorine-treated SEB after 24 hours. Arrows indicate 31 kDa molecular weight marker (top arrow) and 28 kDa SEB (bottom arrow).
Mentions: SDS-PAGE was also performed to ascertain the overall effect of chemical reaction with chlorine on the molecular weight of SEB. For the treated and untreated SEB, 1.5 μg of SEB was loaded per well. As shown in Figure 2, for untreated SEB, the SEB was visible on the gel as a band with a molecular weight of approximately 28 kDa for all time points tested. For chlorine-treated SEB, no band was visible at the same molecular weight as untreated SEB for any of the time points tested. No other bands were visible for the chlorine-treated SEB.

Bottom Line: Both ricin and SEB were detected by HHAs in formulated tap water at or below the suggested health effect levels of 455 ng/mL and 4.55 ng/mL, respectively.LODs for ricin increased in chlorinated water, but still remained below the suggested health effect level.In conclusion, the HHAs tested were less effective at detecting ricin and SEB in disinfected water, as currently configured.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, U.S. Army, RDECOM, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010, USA.

ABSTRACT
Development of a rapid field test is needed capable of determining if field supplies of water are safe to drink by the warfighter during a military operation. The present study sought to assess the effectiveness of handheld assays (HHAs) in detecting ricin and Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B (SEB) in water. Performance of HHAs was evaluated in formulated tap water with and without chlorine, reverse osmosis water (RO) with chlorine, and RO with bromine. Each matrix was prepared, spiked with ricin or SEB at multiple concentrations, and then loaded onto HHAs. HHAs were allowed to develop and then read visually. Limits of detection (LOD) were determined for all HHAs in each water type. Both ricin and SEB were detected by HHAs in formulated tap water at or below the suggested health effect levels of 455 ng/mL and 4.55 ng/mL, respectively. However, in brominated or chlorinated waters, LODs for SEB increased to approximately 2,500 ng/mL. LODs for ricin increased in chlorinated water, but still remained below the suggested health effect level. In brominated water, the LOD for ricin increased to approximately 2,500 ng/mL. In conclusion, the HHAs tested were less effective at detecting ricin and SEB in disinfected water, as currently configured.

No MeSH data available.