Limits...
Nutrition and Iron Status of 1-Year Olds following a Revision in Infant Dietary Recommendations.

Thorisdottir AV, Thorsdottir I, Palsson GI - Anemia (2011)

Bottom Line: Iron status associated negatively with growth and breastfeeding duration and positively with meat and formula intake at 9-12 months, but not with cow's milk.Conclusion.Dietary changes altered associations between foods and iron status.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali-The National University Hospital of Iceland, Eiríksgata 29, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland.

ABSTRACT
A previous study showed low iron status in 12-month-old Icelandic infants associated most strongly with cow's milk intake and growth. Infant dietary recommendations were revised in 2003. This study investigated nutrition and iron status in a new infant cohort. Subjects/Methods. Randomly selected infants were prospectively investigated for diet, anthropometry, and iron status (n = 110-141). Results. Breastfeeding initiation rate was 98%; 38% of 5-month olds were exclusively and 20% of 12-month olds partially breastfed. Formula was given to 21% of 6-month olds and 64% of 12-month olds, but cow's milk to 2.5% and 54.4% of 6- and 12-month olds, respectively. Iron depletion (serum ferritin < 12 μg/L) affected 5.8%, 1.4% were also iron deficient (MCV < 74 fl), and none were anemic (Hb < 105 g/l). Iron status associated negatively with growth and breastfeeding duration and positively with meat and formula intake at 9-12 months, but not with cow's milk. Conclusion. Improved iron status might be explained by a shift from cow's milk to formula in the diet of Icelandic 6-12-month olds. Dietary changes altered associations between foods and iron status.

No MeSH data available.


Box plots of iron status indices in 12-month olds, from previous (1995–1997) and present (2005–2007) studies. The box plots show the median, quartiles, maximum, and minimum values. Independent t-test was used for hemoglobin (P = .001), and MCV (P = .113), data were normally distributed and Mann-Whitney test for serum ferritin (P = .001) data were not normally distributed.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3139868&req=5

fig1: Box plots of iron status indices in 12-month olds, from previous (1995–1997) and present (2005–2007) studies. The box plots show the median, quartiles, maximum, and minimum values. Independent t-test was used for hemoglobin (P = .001), and MCV (P = .113), data were normally distributed and Mann-Whitney test for serum ferritin (P = .001) data were not normally distributed.

Mentions: In comparison with the former study on infant nutrition (1995–1997), iron status of 12-month-old Icelandic infants has improved significantly (Figure 1). The prevalence of ID decreased from 20% to 1.4%, iron depletion from 41% to 5.8%, and IDA from 2.7% to 0. The participants in the two studies were nationwide random samples of healthy term infants and analogous with respect to sociodemographic factors, that is, habitation, number of siblings, parents' age, and education [7], and therefore comparable. Iron status in the 1995–1997 infant study was worse than in the neighboring countries [7] but according to the latest data from the Scandinavian countries there seems to be a lower prevalence of ID infants in Iceland than in the other Nordic countries. In a Swedish and a Norwegian study 18% and 10% of 12-month-old infants, respectively, were iron depleted (SF < 12 μg/L) [4, 8], compared with 5.8% in the 2005–2007 infant cohort now presented. In the present study the threshold for Hb level was 105 g/L and for MCV it was 74 fl, as it was also used in the previous Icelandic infant study and other Nordic studies for this age group [2, 7, 20, 21]. The thresholds for infants are, however, controversial, and the World Health Organization recommends the use of 110 g/L for Hb in children between the ages of 6 to 59 months and 79 fl for MCV in children between the ages of 1 to 1.9 years. Changing the thresholds for Hb and MCV in our cohorts towards WHO standards did not change the result or the conclusion of the study, the difference between the two cohorts was even larger.


Nutrition and Iron Status of 1-Year Olds following a Revision in Infant Dietary Recommendations.

Thorisdottir AV, Thorsdottir I, Palsson GI - Anemia (2011)

Box plots of iron status indices in 12-month olds, from previous (1995–1997) and present (2005–2007) studies. The box plots show the median, quartiles, maximum, and minimum values. Independent t-test was used for hemoglobin (P = .001), and MCV (P = .113), data were normally distributed and Mann-Whitney test for serum ferritin (P = .001) data were not normally distributed.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3139868&req=5

fig1: Box plots of iron status indices in 12-month olds, from previous (1995–1997) and present (2005–2007) studies. The box plots show the median, quartiles, maximum, and minimum values. Independent t-test was used for hemoglobin (P = .001), and MCV (P = .113), data were normally distributed and Mann-Whitney test for serum ferritin (P = .001) data were not normally distributed.
Mentions: In comparison with the former study on infant nutrition (1995–1997), iron status of 12-month-old Icelandic infants has improved significantly (Figure 1). The prevalence of ID decreased from 20% to 1.4%, iron depletion from 41% to 5.8%, and IDA from 2.7% to 0. The participants in the two studies were nationwide random samples of healthy term infants and analogous with respect to sociodemographic factors, that is, habitation, number of siblings, parents' age, and education [7], and therefore comparable. Iron status in the 1995–1997 infant study was worse than in the neighboring countries [7] but according to the latest data from the Scandinavian countries there seems to be a lower prevalence of ID infants in Iceland than in the other Nordic countries. In a Swedish and a Norwegian study 18% and 10% of 12-month-old infants, respectively, were iron depleted (SF < 12 μg/L) [4, 8], compared with 5.8% in the 2005–2007 infant cohort now presented. In the present study the threshold for Hb level was 105 g/L and for MCV it was 74 fl, as it was also used in the previous Icelandic infant study and other Nordic studies for this age group [2, 7, 20, 21]. The thresholds for infants are, however, controversial, and the World Health Organization recommends the use of 110 g/L for Hb in children between the ages of 6 to 59 months and 79 fl for MCV in children between the ages of 1 to 1.9 years. Changing the thresholds for Hb and MCV in our cohorts towards WHO standards did not change the result or the conclusion of the study, the difference between the two cohorts was even larger.

Bottom Line: Iron status associated negatively with growth and breastfeeding duration and positively with meat and formula intake at 9-12 months, but not with cow's milk.Conclusion.Dietary changes altered associations between foods and iron status.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali-The National University Hospital of Iceland, Eiríksgata 29, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland.

ABSTRACT
A previous study showed low iron status in 12-month-old Icelandic infants associated most strongly with cow's milk intake and growth. Infant dietary recommendations were revised in 2003. This study investigated nutrition and iron status in a new infant cohort. Subjects/Methods. Randomly selected infants were prospectively investigated for diet, anthropometry, and iron status (n = 110-141). Results. Breastfeeding initiation rate was 98%; 38% of 5-month olds were exclusively and 20% of 12-month olds partially breastfed. Formula was given to 21% of 6-month olds and 64% of 12-month olds, but cow's milk to 2.5% and 54.4% of 6- and 12-month olds, respectively. Iron depletion (serum ferritin < 12 μg/L) affected 5.8%, 1.4% were also iron deficient (MCV < 74 fl), and none were anemic (Hb < 105 g/l). Iron status associated negatively with growth and breastfeeding duration and positively with meat and formula intake at 9-12 months, but not with cow's milk. Conclusion. Improved iron status might be explained by a shift from cow's milk to formula in the diet of Icelandic 6-12-month olds. Dietary changes altered associations between foods and iron status.

No MeSH data available.