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Effect of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections on physical fitness of school children in Côte d'Ivoire.

Müller I, Coulibaly JT, Fürst T, Knopp S, Hattendorf J, Krauth SJ, Stete K, Righetti AA, Glinz D, Yao AK, Pühse U, N'goran EK, Utzinger J - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2011)

Bottom Line: However, the effect of these diseases on physical fitness remains to be determined.No statistically significant difference was detected between any groups.School-aged children in Côte d'Ivoire showed good physical fitness, irrespective of their helminth infection status.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT

Background: Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis are important public health problems in sub-Saharan Africa causing malnutrition, anemia, and retardation of physical and cognitive development. However, the effect of these diseases on physical fitness remains to be determined.

Methodology: We investigated the relationship between schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis and physical performance of children, controlling for potential confounding of Plasmodium spp. infections and environmental parameters (i.e., ambient air temperature and humidity). A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 156 school children aged 7-15 years from Côte d'Ivoire. Each child had two stool and two urine samples examined for helminth eggs by microscopy. Additionally, children underwent a clinical examination, were tested for Plasmodium spp. infection with a rapid diagnostic test, and performed a maximal multistage 20 m shuttle run test to assess their maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2) max) as a proxy for physical fitness.

Principal findings: The prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium, Plasmodium spp., Schistosoma mansoni, hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides infections was 85.3%, 71.2%, 53.8%, 13.5% and 1.3%, respectively. Children with single, dual, triple, quadruple and quintuple species infections showed VO(2) max of 52.7, 53.1, 52.2, 52.6 and 55.6 ml kg(-1) min(-1), respectively. The VO(2) max of children with no parasite infections was 53.5 ml kg(-1) min(-1). No statistically significant difference was detected between any groups. Multivariable analysis revealed that VO(2) max was influenced by sex (reference: female, coef. = 4.02, p<0.001) and age (years, coef. = -1.23, p<0.001), but not by helminth infection and intensity, Plasmodium spp. infection, and environmental parameters.

Conclusion/significance: School-aged children in Côte d'Ivoire showed good physical fitness, irrespective of their helminth infection status. Future studies on children's physical fitness in settings where helminthiasis and malaria co-exist should include pre- and post-intervention evaluations and the measurement of hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and nutritional parameters as potential co-factors to determine whether interventions further improve upon fitness.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Sex-specific scatter plots of VO2 max values among Ivoirian school children.VO2 max values were obtained from 156 children attending grades 4-6 in the primary school of Grand Moutcho II and III near Agboville, south Côte d'Ivoire in early 2010 after performing a 20 m shuttle run test. Data are shown in accordance with children's infection status of S. haematobium, measured in number of eggs per 10 ml of urine (A), and S. mansoni, measured in number of eggs per gram of stool (EPG) (B). Scatter plots on the top represent males and scatter plots on the bottom females. Second order polynomial regression lines (solid lines) and their 95% confidence intervals (dotted lines) are presented.
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pntd-0001239-g002: Sex-specific scatter plots of VO2 max values among Ivoirian school children.VO2 max values were obtained from 156 children attending grades 4-6 in the primary school of Grand Moutcho II and III near Agboville, south Côte d'Ivoire in early 2010 after performing a 20 m shuttle run test. Data are shown in accordance with children's infection status of S. haematobium, measured in number of eggs per 10 ml of urine (A), and S. mansoni, measured in number of eggs per gram of stool (EPG) (B). Scatter plots on the top represent males and scatter plots on the bottom females. Second order polynomial regression lines (solid lines) and their 95% confidence intervals (dotted lines) are presented.

Mentions: However, as demonstrated by overlapping 95% CIs in Tables 2 and 3, no significant differences were found in the VO2 max values of helminth-infected and non-infected children, regardless of the helminth species investigated, regardless of whether children were infected with one or multiple species concurrently, and regardless of the helminth infection intensity. The results of the two parasites with the most diverse infection intensities, as measured by the number of eggs in a given amount of urine or stool, namely S. haematobium and S. mansoni, were used to illustrate their effect on the children's VO2 max. As documented in Figure 2, no clear trend was observable.


Effect of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections on physical fitness of school children in Côte d'Ivoire.

Müller I, Coulibaly JT, Fürst T, Knopp S, Hattendorf J, Krauth SJ, Stete K, Righetti AA, Glinz D, Yao AK, Pühse U, N'goran EK, Utzinger J - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2011)

Sex-specific scatter plots of VO2 max values among Ivoirian school children.VO2 max values were obtained from 156 children attending grades 4-6 in the primary school of Grand Moutcho II and III near Agboville, south Côte d'Ivoire in early 2010 after performing a 20 m shuttle run test. Data are shown in accordance with children's infection status of S. haematobium, measured in number of eggs per 10 ml of urine (A), and S. mansoni, measured in number of eggs per gram of stool (EPG) (B). Scatter plots on the top represent males and scatter plots on the bottom females. Second order polynomial regression lines (solid lines) and their 95% confidence intervals (dotted lines) are presented.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3139653&req=5

pntd-0001239-g002: Sex-specific scatter plots of VO2 max values among Ivoirian school children.VO2 max values were obtained from 156 children attending grades 4-6 in the primary school of Grand Moutcho II and III near Agboville, south Côte d'Ivoire in early 2010 after performing a 20 m shuttle run test. Data are shown in accordance with children's infection status of S. haematobium, measured in number of eggs per 10 ml of urine (A), and S. mansoni, measured in number of eggs per gram of stool (EPG) (B). Scatter plots on the top represent males and scatter plots on the bottom females. Second order polynomial regression lines (solid lines) and their 95% confidence intervals (dotted lines) are presented.
Mentions: However, as demonstrated by overlapping 95% CIs in Tables 2 and 3, no significant differences were found in the VO2 max values of helminth-infected and non-infected children, regardless of the helminth species investigated, regardless of whether children were infected with one or multiple species concurrently, and regardless of the helminth infection intensity. The results of the two parasites with the most diverse infection intensities, as measured by the number of eggs in a given amount of urine or stool, namely S. haematobium and S. mansoni, were used to illustrate their effect on the children's VO2 max. As documented in Figure 2, no clear trend was observable.

Bottom Line: However, the effect of these diseases on physical fitness remains to be determined.No statistically significant difference was detected between any groups.School-aged children in Côte d'Ivoire showed good physical fitness, irrespective of their helminth infection status.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT

Background: Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis are important public health problems in sub-Saharan Africa causing malnutrition, anemia, and retardation of physical and cognitive development. However, the effect of these diseases on physical fitness remains to be determined.

Methodology: We investigated the relationship between schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis and physical performance of children, controlling for potential confounding of Plasmodium spp. infections and environmental parameters (i.e., ambient air temperature and humidity). A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 156 school children aged 7-15 years from Côte d'Ivoire. Each child had two stool and two urine samples examined for helminth eggs by microscopy. Additionally, children underwent a clinical examination, were tested for Plasmodium spp. infection with a rapid diagnostic test, and performed a maximal multistage 20 m shuttle run test to assess their maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2) max) as a proxy for physical fitness.

Principal findings: The prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium, Plasmodium spp., Schistosoma mansoni, hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides infections was 85.3%, 71.2%, 53.8%, 13.5% and 1.3%, respectively. Children with single, dual, triple, quadruple and quintuple species infections showed VO(2) max of 52.7, 53.1, 52.2, 52.6 and 55.6 ml kg(-1) min(-1), respectively. The VO(2) max of children with no parasite infections was 53.5 ml kg(-1) min(-1). No statistically significant difference was detected between any groups. Multivariable analysis revealed that VO(2) max was influenced by sex (reference: female, coef. = 4.02, p<0.001) and age (years, coef. = -1.23, p<0.001), but not by helminth infection and intensity, Plasmodium spp. infection, and environmental parameters.

Conclusion/significance: School-aged children in Côte d'Ivoire showed good physical fitness, irrespective of their helminth infection status. Future studies on children's physical fitness in settings where helminthiasis and malaria co-exist should include pre- and post-intervention evaluations and the measurement of hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and nutritional parameters as potential co-factors to determine whether interventions further improve upon fitness.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus