Limits...
Dogs leaving the ICU carry a very large multi-drug resistant enterococcal population with capacity for biofilm formation and horizontal gene transfer.

Ghosh A, Dowd SE, Zurek L - PLoS ONE (2011)

Bottom Line: In vitro intra-species conjugation assays demonstrated that E. faecium were capable of transferring tetracycline, doxycycline, streptomycin, gentamicin, and erythromycin resistance traits to human clinical strains.Multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of E. faecium strains showed very low genotypic diversity.It is recommended to restrict close physical contact between pets released from the ICU and their owners to avoid potential health risks.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The enterococcal community from feces of seven dogs treated with antibiotics for 2-9 days in the veterinary intensive care unit (ICU) was characterized. Both, culture-based approach and culture-independent 16S rDNA amplicon 454 pyrosequencing, revealed an abnormally large enterococcal community: 1.4±0.8×10(8) CFU gram(-1) of feces and 48.9±11.5% of the total 16,228 sequences, respectively. The diversity of the overall microbial community was very low which likely reflects a high selective antibiotic pressure. The enterococcal diversity based on 210 isolates was also low as represented by Enterococcus faecium (54.6%) and Enterococcus faecalis (45.4%). E. faecium was frequently resistant to enrofloxacin (97.3%), ampicillin (96.5%), tetracycline (84.1%), doxycycline (60.2%), erythromycin (53.1%), gentamicin (48.7%), streptomycin (42.5%), and nitrofurantoin (26.5%). In E. faecalis, resistance was common to tetracycline (59.6%), erythromycin (56.4%), doxycycline (53.2%), and enrofloxacin (31.9%). No resistance was detected to vancomycin, tigecycline, linezolid, and quinupristin/dalfopristin in either species. Many isolates carried virulence traits including gelatinase, aggregation substance, cytolysin, and enterococcal surface protein. All E. faecalis strains were biofilm formers in vitro and this phenotype correlated with the presence of gelE and/or esp. In vitro intra-species conjugation assays demonstrated that E. faecium were capable of transferring tetracycline, doxycycline, streptomycin, gentamicin, and erythromycin resistance traits to human clinical strains. Multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of E. faecium strains showed very low genotypic diversity. Interestingly, three E. faecium clones were shared among four dogs suggesting their nosocomial origin. Furthermore, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) of nine representative MLVA types revealed that six sequence types (STs) originating from five dogs were identical or closely related to STs of human clinical isolates and isolates from hospital outbreaks. It is recommended to restrict close physical contact between pets released from the ICU and their owners to avoid potential health risks.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Clustering of nine E. faecium MTs from the feces of ICU dogs.eBURST clustering of nine multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis types (MTs) representing 109 E. faecium isolates from the present study (indicated by solid line circles), with one representative isolate from each of 339 MTs available in the MLVA database. Each MT is represented as a node and differs in one VNTR locus. Dotted line circles indicate MTs from A: clinical infections, hospital outbreaks, hospital and community surveys; B: clinical infections, hospital environment; C: clinical infections, animals and birds (ostrich, chicken, dog, pig); D: calves and community survey. ICU = intensive care unit.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3139645&req=5

pone-0022451-g005: Clustering of nine E. faecium MTs from the feces of ICU dogs.eBURST clustering of nine multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis types (MTs) representing 109 E. faecium isolates from the present study (indicated by solid line circles), with one representative isolate from each of 339 MTs available in the MLVA database. Each MT is represented as a node and differs in one VNTR locus. Dotted line circles indicate MTs from A: clinical infections, hospital outbreaks, hospital and community surveys; B: clinical infections, hospital environment; C: clinical infections, animals and birds (ostrich, chicken, dog, pig); D: calves and community survey. ICU = intensive care unit.

Mentions: Clonal analysis based on MLVA assigned 109 E. faecium isolates (3 strains from dog ICU-4 were not typeable) to nine MTs including four novel ones (MTs 335, 336, 337 and 338) (Figure 5). The population snapshot of the entire E. faecium MLVA database generated by eBURST offered a view of all major and minor clonal complexes and indicated MT-1 corresponding to the clonal complex involved in hospital acquired infections (CC-1) as the primary founder (Figure 5). MTs 10 and 12 (SLVs of MT-1) were directly related to MT-1 and included isolates from hospital outbreaks, clinical infections, and also from hospital and community surveys (http://www.umcutrecht.nl/subsite/MLVA/). Another three MTs: MT-27 (TLV of MT-1, and DLV of MT-12), MT-30 (TLV of MT-1, DLV of MT-10, and SLV of MT-27), and MT-338 (DLV of MT-27 and MT-30) clustered together and were closely related to isolates from clinical infections and hospital environment. MT-337 (DLV of MT-30, and SLV of MT-27) grouped with human clinical isolates along with isolates from various animals including ostrich, chicken, dog, and pig. MT-336 (4-locus variant of MT-1) distantly placed as an individual MT not linked to any other MT in the database whereas MT-335 (differed in all 6 loci from MT-1 and it was TLV of MT-336) was on the same branch with calf isolates (MTs 64, 66, 67, 69 and 70) (Figure 5). Interestingly, none of the MTs from our ICU dogs except MT-337 showed close association with the MTs described previously from dogs (MTs 53, 60 and 124) (http://www.umcutrecht.nl/subsite/MLVA/).


Dogs leaving the ICU carry a very large multi-drug resistant enterococcal population with capacity for biofilm formation and horizontal gene transfer.

Ghosh A, Dowd SE, Zurek L - PLoS ONE (2011)

Clustering of nine E. faecium MTs from the feces of ICU dogs.eBURST clustering of nine multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis types (MTs) representing 109 E. faecium isolates from the present study (indicated by solid line circles), with one representative isolate from each of 339 MTs available in the MLVA database. Each MT is represented as a node and differs in one VNTR locus. Dotted line circles indicate MTs from A: clinical infections, hospital outbreaks, hospital and community surveys; B: clinical infections, hospital environment; C: clinical infections, animals and birds (ostrich, chicken, dog, pig); D: calves and community survey. ICU = intensive care unit.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3139645&req=5

pone-0022451-g005: Clustering of nine E. faecium MTs from the feces of ICU dogs.eBURST clustering of nine multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis types (MTs) representing 109 E. faecium isolates from the present study (indicated by solid line circles), with one representative isolate from each of 339 MTs available in the MLVA database. Each MT is represented as a node and differs in one VNTR locus. Dotted line circles indicate MTs from A: clinical infections, hospital outbreaks, hospital and community surveys; B: clinical infections, hospital environment; C: clinical infections, animals and birds (ostrich, chicken, dog, pig); D: calves and community survey. ICU = intensive care unit.
Mentions: Clonal analysis based on MLVA assigned 109 E. faecium isolates (3 strains from dog ICU-4 were not typeable) to nine MTs including four novel ones (MTs 335, 336, 337 and 338) (Figure 5). The population snapshot of the entire E. faecium MLVA database generated by eBURST offered a view of all major and minor clonal complexes and indicated MT-1 corresponding to the clonal complex involved in hospital acquired infections (CC-1) as the primary founder (Figure 5). MTs 10 and 12 (SLVs of MT-1) were directly related to MT-1 and included isolates from hospital outbreaks, clinical infections, and also from hospital and community surveys (http://www.umcutrecht.nl/subsite/MLVA/). Another three MTs: MT-27 (TLV of MT-1, and DLV of MT-12), MT-30 (TLV of MT-1, DLV of MT-10, and SLV of MT-27), and MT-338 (DLV of MT-27 and MT-30) clustered together and were closely related to isolates from clinical infections and hospital environment. MT-337 (DLV of MT-30, and SLV of MT-27) grouped with human clinical isolates along with isolates from various animals including ostrich, chicken, dog, and pig. MT-336 (4-locus variant of MT-1) distantly placed as an individual MT not linked to any other MT in the database whereas MT-335 (differed in all 6 loci from MT-1 and it was TLV of MT-336) was on the same branch with calf isolates (MTs 64, 66, 67, 69 and 70) (Figure 5). Interestingly, none of the MTs from our ICU dogs except MT-337 showed close association with the MTs described previously from dogs (MTs 53, 60 and 124) (http://www.umcutrecht.nl/subsite/MLVA/).

Bottom Line: In vitro intra-species conjugation assays demonstrated that E. faecium were capable of transferring tetracycline, doxycycline, streptomycin, gentamicin, and erythromycin resistance traits to human clinical strains.Multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of E. faecium strains showed very low genotypic diversity.It is recommended to restrict close physical contact between pets released from the ICU and their owners to avoid potential health risks.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The enterococcal community from feces of seven dogs treated with antibiotics for 2-9 days in the veterinary intensive care unit (ICU) was characterized. Both, culture-based approach and culture-independent 16S rDNA amplicon 454 pyrosequencing, revealed an abnormally large enterococcal community: 1.4±0.8×10(8) CFU gram(-1) of feces and 48.9±11.5% of the total 16,228 sequences, respectively. The diversity of the overall microbial community was very low which likely reflects a high selective antibiotic pressure. The enterococcal diversity based on 210 isolates was also low as represented by Enterococcus faecium (54.6%) and Enterococcus faecalis (45.4%). E. faecium was frequently resistant to enrofloxacin (97.3%), ampicillin (96.5%), tetracycline (84.1%), doxycycline (60.2%), erythromycin (53.1%), gentamicin (48.7%), streptomycin (42.5%), and nitrofurantoin (26.5%). In E. faecalis, resistance was common to tetracycline (59.6%), erythromycin (56.4%), doxycycline (53.2%), and enrofloxacin (31.9%). No resistance was detected to vancomycin, tigecycline, linezolid, and quinupristin/dalfopristin in either species. Many isolates carried virulence traits including gelatinase, aggregation substance, cytolysin, and enterococcal surface protein. All E. faecalis strains were biofilm formers in vitro and this phenotype correlated with the presence of gelE and/or esp. In vitro intra-species conjugation assays demonstrated that E. faecium were capable of transferring tetracycline, doxycycline, streptomycin, gentamicin, and erythromycin resistance traits to human clinical strains. Multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of E. faecium strains showed very low genotypic diversity. Interestingly, three E. faecium clones were shared among four dogs suggesting their nosocomial origin. Furthermore, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) of nine representative MLVA types revealed that six sequence types (STs) originating from five dogs were identical or closely related to STs of human clinical isolates and isolates from hospital outbreaks. It is recommended to restrict close physical contact between pets released from the ICU and their owners to avoid potential health risks.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus