Limits...
Dogs leaving the ICU carry a very large multi-drug resistant enterococcal population with capacity for biofilm formation and horizontal gene transfer.

Ghosh A, Dowd SE, Zurek L - PLoS ONE (2011)

Bottom Line: In vitro intra-species conjugation assays demonstrated that E. faecium were capable of transferring tetracycline, doxycycline, streptomycin, gentamicin, and erythromycin resistance traits to human clinical strains.Multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of E. faecium strains showed very low genotypic diversity.It is recommended to restrict close physical contact between pets released from the ICU and their owners to avoid potential health risks.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The enterococcal community from feces of seven dogs treated with antibiotics for 2-9 days in the veterinary intensive care unit (ICU) was characterized. Both, culture-based approach and culture-independent 16S rDNA amplicon 454 pyrosequencing, revealed an abnormally large enterococcal community: 1.4±0.8×10(8) CFU gram(-1) of feces and 48.9±11.5% of the total 16,228 sequences, respectively. The diversity of the overall microbial community was very low which likely reflects a high selective antibiotic pressure. The enterococcal diversity based on 210 isolates was also low as represented by Enterococcus faecium (54.6%) and Enterococcus faecalis (45.4%). E. faecium was frequently resistant to enrofloxacin (97.3%), ampicillin (96.5%), tetracycline (84.1%), doxycycline (60.2%), erythromycin (53.1%), gentamicin (48.7%), streptomycin (42.5%), and nitrofurantoin (26.5%). In E. faecalis, resistance was common to tetracycline (59.6%), erythromycin (56.4%), doxycycline (53.2%), and enrofloxacin (31.9%). No resistance was detected to vancomycin, tigecycline, linezolid, and quinupristin/dalfopristin in either species. Many isolates carried virulence traits including gelatinase, aggregation substance, cytolysin, and enterococcal surface protein. All E. faecalis strains were biofilm formers in vitro and this phenotype correlated with the presence of gelE and/or esp. In vitro intra-species conjugation assays demonstrated that E. faecium were capable of transferring tetracycline, doxycycline, streptomycin, gentamicin, and erythromycin resistance traits to human clinical strains. Multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of E. faecium strains showed very low genotypic diversity. Interestingly, three E. faecium clones were shared among four dogs suggesting their nosocomial origin. Furthermore, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) of nine representative MLVA types revealed that six sequence types (STs) originating from five dogs were identical or closely related to STs of human clinical isolates and isolates from hospital outbreaks. It is recommended to restrict close physical contact between pets released from the ICU and their owners to avoid potential health risks.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Antibiotic resistance profile of enterococci from the feces of ICU dogs.AM = ampicillin, TET = tetracycline, D = doxycycline, GM = gentamicin, STR = streptomycin, E = erythromycin, ENO = enrofloxacin, VA = vancomycin, Q/D = quinupristin/dalfopristin, LIN = linezolid, NF = nitrofurantoin, TGC = tigecycline, ICU = intensive care unit. *not applicable for E. faecalis isolates due to their intrinsic resistance.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3139645&req=5

pone-0022451-g002: Antibiotic resistance profile of enterococci from the feces of ICU dogs.AM = ampicillin, TET = tetracycline, D = doxycycline, GM = gentamicin, STR = streptomycin, E = erythromycin, ENO = enrofloxacin, VA = vancomycin, Q/D = quinupristin/dalfopristin, LIN = linezolid, NF = nitrofurantoin, TGC = tigecycline, ICU = intensive care unit. *not applicable for E. faecalis isolates due to their intrinsic resistance.

Mentions: All isolates were screened for their susceptibility to 12 antibiotics representing 10 classes. The choice of antibiotics was primarily based on the drugs commonly used to treat human enterococcal infections and also frequently used in veterinary medicine. E. faecium was very frequently (43.4%) multi-drug (6–8 antibiotics) resistant with the most common (22.1%) resistance combination of ampicillin, tetracycline, doxycycline, gentamicin, erythromycin, and enrofloxacin (Table S4). The majority (>80%) of E. faecium showed resistance to wide spectrum of antibiotics including fluoroquinolone (enrofloxacin: 97.3%), β-lactam (ampicillin: 96.5%), and tetracyclines (tetracycline: 84.1%; doxycycline: 60.2%), followed by resistance to macrolide (erythromycin: 53.1%), aminoglycosides (gentamicin: 48.7%; streptomycin: 42.5%), and nitrofurantoin (26.5%) (Figure 2). The MICs determined for a subset of multi-drug resistant E. faecium was high and in the MIC range of human clinical E. faecium isolates (Table 2). In addition, a considerable number of E. faecalis (44.8%) was multi-drug (3–4 antibiotics) resistant with tetracycline, doxycycline, and erythromycin or enrofloxacin as the most common combinations (Table S4). These strains were frequently resistant to tetracycline (59.6%), erythromycin (56.4%), doxycycline (53.2%), and enrofloxacin (31.9%) (Figure 2). The antibiotic resistance profile for each isolate from individual ICU dogs is presented in Table S5.


Dogs leaving the ICU carry a very large multi-drug resistant enterococcal population with capacity for biofilm formation and horizontal gene transfer.

Ghosh A, Dowd SE, Zurek L - PLoS ONE (2011)

Antibiotic resistance profile of enterococci from the feces of ICU dogs.AM = ampicillin, TET = tetracycline, D = doxycycline, GM = gentamicin, STR = streptomycin, E = erythromycin, ENO = enrofloxacin, VA = vancomycin, Q/D = quinupristin/dalfopristin, LIN = linezolid, NF = nitrofurantoin, TGC = tigecycline, ICU = intensive care unit. *not applicable for E. faecalis isolates due to their intrinsic resistance.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3139645&req=5

pone-0022451-g002: Antibiotic resistance profile of enterococci from the feces of ICU dogs.AM = ampicillin, TET = tetracycline, D = doxycycline, GM = gentamicin, STR = streptomycin, E = erythromycin, ENO = enrofloxacin, VA = vancomycin, Q/D = quinupristin/dalfopristin, LIN = linezolid, NF = nitrofurantoin, TGC = tigecycline, ICU = intensive care unit. *not applicable for E. faecalis isolates due to their intrinsic resistance.
Mentions: All isolates were screened for their susceptibility to 12 antibiotics representing 10 classes. The choice of antibiotics was primarily based on the drugs commonly used to treat human enterococcal infections and also frequently used in veterinary medicine. E. faecium was very frequently (43.4%) multi-drug (6–8 antibiotics) resistant with the most common (22.1%) resistance combination of ampicillin, tetracycline, doxycycline, gentamicin, erythromycin, and enrofloxacin (Table S4). The majority (>80%) of E. faecium showed resistance to wide spectrum of antibiotics including fluoroquinolone (enrofloxacin: 97.3%), β-lactam (ampicillin: 96.5%), and tetracyclines (tetracycline: 84.1%; doxycycline: 60.2%), followed by resistance to macrolide (erythromycin: 53.1%), aminoglycosides (gentamicin: 48.7%; streptomycin: 42.5%), and nitrofurantoin (26.5%) (Figure 2). The MICs determined for a subset of multi-drug resistant E. faecium was high and in the MIC range of human clinical E. faecium isolates (Table 2). In addition, a considerable number of E. faecalis (44.8%) was multi-drug (3–4 antibiotics) resistant with tetracycline, doxycycline, and erythromycin or enrofloxacin as the most common combinations (Table S4). These strains were frequently resistant to tetracycline (59.6%), erythromycin (56.4%), doxycycline (53.2%), and enrofloxacin (31.9%) (Figure 2). The antibiotic resistance profile for each isolate from individual ICU dogs is presented in Table S5.

Bottom Line: In vitro intra-species conjugation assays demonstrated that E. faecium were capable of transferring tetracycline, doxycycline, streptomycin, gentamicin, and erythromycin resistance traits to human clinical strains.Multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of E. faecium strains showed very low genotypic diversity.It is recommended to restrict close physical contact between pets released from the ICU and their owners to avoid potential health risks.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The enterococcal community from feces of seven dogs treated with antibiotics for 2-9 days in the veterinary intensive care unit (ICU) was characterized. Both, culture-based approach and culture-independent 16S rDNA amplicon 454 pyrosequencing, revealed an abnormally large enterococcal community: 1.4±0.8×10(8) CFU gram(-1) of feces and 48.9±11.5% of the total 16,228 sequences, respectively. The diversity of the overall microbial community was very low which likely reflects a high selective antibiotic pressure. The enterococcal diversity based on 210 isolates was also low as represented by Enterococcus faecium (54.6%) and Enterococcus faecalis (45.4%). E. faecium was frequently resistant to enrofloxacin (97.3%), ampicillin (96.5%), tetracycline (84.1%), doxycycline (60.2%), erythromycin (53.1%), gentamicin (48.7%), streptomycin (42.5%), and nitrofurantoin (26.5%). In E. faecalis, resistance was common to tetracycline (59.6%), erythromycin (56.4%), doxycycline (53.2%), and enrofloxacin (31.9%). No resistance was detected to vancomycin, tigecycline, linezolid, and quinupristin/dalfopristin in either species. Many isolates carried virulence traits including gelatinase, aggregation substance, cytolysin, and enterococcal surface protein. All E. faecalis strains were biofilm formers in vitro and this phenotype correlated with the presence of gelE and/or esp. In vitro intra-species conjugation assays demonstrated that E. faecium were capable of transferring tetracycline, doxycycline, streptomycin, gentamicin, and erythromycin resistance traits to human clinical strains. Multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of E. faecium strains showed very low genotypic diversity. Interestingly, three E. faecium clones were shared among four dogs suggesting their nosocomial origin. Furthermore, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) of nine representative MLVA types revealed that six sequence types (STs) originating from five dogs were identical or closely related to STs of human clinical isolates and isolates from hospital outbreaks. It is recommended to restrict close physical contact between pets released from the ICU and their owners to avoid potential health risks.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus