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Monoterpene variation mediated attack preference evolution of the bark beetle Dendroctonus valens.

Liu Z, Wang B, Xu B, Sun J - PLoS ONE (2011)

Bottom Line: Moreover, large-DBH pine trees provided more spacious habitat and contained more nutrients, such as nitrogen, than did small-DBH pine trees, which benefited RTBs' fecundity and larval development.RTBs seem to have evolved mechanisms to locate those large hosts that will allow them to maximize their fitness.Monoterpene variation mediated attack preference implies the potential for the management of RTB.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Beijing, China. liuzdqyj@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
Several studies suggest that some bark beetle like to attack large trees. The invasive red turpentine beetle (RTB), Dendroctonus valens LeConte, one of the most destructive forest pests in China, is known to exhibit this behavior. Our previous study demonstrated that RTBs preferred to attack large-diameter trees (diameter at breast height, DBH ≥30 cm) over small-diameter trees (DBH ≤10 cm) in the field. In the current study, we studied the attacking behavior and the underlying mechanisms in the laboratory. Behavioral assays showed that RTBs preferred the bark of large-DBH trees and had a higher attack rate on the bolts of these trees. Y-tube assays showed that RTBs preferred the volatiles released by large-DBH trees to those released by small-DBH trees. Subsequent analysis revealed that both large- and small-DBH trees had the same composition of monoterpenes, but the concentration of each component differed; thus it appeared that the concentrations acted as cues for RTBs to locate the right-sized host which was confirmed by further behavioral assays. Moreover, large-DBH pine trees provided more spacious habitat and contained more nutrients, such as nitrogen, than did small-DBH pine trees, which benefited RTBs' fecundity and larval development. RTBs seem to have evolved mechanisms to locate those large hosts that will allow them to maximize their fitness. Monoterpene variation mediated attack preference implies the potential for the management of RTB.

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The comparison of RTB body thickness and two size host-phloem thickness.Bars indicate standard errors and different letters on bar indicate significant differences at p≤0.05 with Bonferroni Multiple Comparison (ANOVA).
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pone-0022005-g002: The comparison of RTB body thickness and two size host-phloem thickness.Bars indicate standard errors and different letters on bar indicate significant differences at p≤0.05 with Bonferroni Multiple Comparison (ANOVA).

Mentions: The phloem was thicker on large-DBH trees than on small-DBH trees (F = 518.3; df = 1, 12; p<0.0001) (Table 3) , in which the phloem of large tree was nearly the same thickness as RTB beetles themselves and both were significantly thicker than the phloem of small tree (F = 63.524; df = 2, 103; p<0.0001) (Fig. 2). The water content of phloem from large-DBH trees was much higher than that from small-DBH trees (F = 32.133; df = 1.4; p = 0.005). More important, the nitrogen content of the phloem, the main limiting source for herbivores, was also much higher in large-DBH trees than in small-DBH trees (F = 31.282; df = 1.4; p<0.001), although the amount of soluble sugar in phloem did not differ significantly (F = 2.176; df = 1.4; p = 0.162) (Table 3).


Monoterpene variation mediated attack preference evolution of the bark beetle Dendroctonus valens.

Liu Z, Wang B, Xu B, Sun J - PLoS ONE (2011)

The comparison of RTB body thickness and two size host-phloem thickness.Bars indicate standard errors and different letters on bar indicate significant differences at p≤0.05 with Bonferroni Multiple Comparison (ANOVA).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3139614&req=5

pone-0022005-g002: The comparison of RTB body thickness and two size host-phloem thickness.Bars indicate standard errors and different letters on bar indicate significant differences at p≤0.05 with Bonferroni Multiple Comparison (ANOVA).
Mentions: The phloem was thicker on large-DBH trees than on small-DBH trees (F = 518.3; df = 1, 12; p<0.0001) (Table 3) , in which the phloem of large tree was nearly the same thickness as RTB beetles themselves and both were significantly thicker than the phloem of small tree (F = 63.524; df = 2, 103; p<0.0001) (Fig. 2). The water content of phloem from large-DBH trees was much higher than that from small-DBH trees (F = 32.133; df = 1.4; p = 0.005). More important, the nitrogen content of the phloem, the main limiting source for herbivores, was also much higher in large-DBH trees than in small-DBH trees (F = 31.282; df = 1.4; p<0.001), although the amount of soluble sugar in phloem did not differ significantly (F = 2.176; df = 1.4; p = 0.162) (Table 3).

Bottom Line: Moreover, large-DBH pine trees provided more spacious habitat and contained more nutrients, such as nitrogen, than did small-DBH pine trees, which benefited RTBs' fecundity and larval development.RTBs seem to have evolved mechanisms to locate those large hosts that will allow them to maximize their fitness.Monoterpene variation mediated attack preference implies the potential for the management of RTB.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Beijing, China. liuzdqyj@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
Several studies suggest that some bark beetle like to attack large trees. The invasive red turpentine beetle (RTB), Dendroctonus valens LeConte, one of the most destructive forest pests in China, is known to exhibit this behavior. Our previous study demonstrated that RTBs preferred to attack large-diameter trees (diameter at breast height, DBH ≥30 cm) over small-diameter trees (DBH ≤10 cm) in the field. In the current study, we studied the attacking behavior and the underlying mechanisms in the laboratory. Behavioral assays showed that RTBs preferred the bark of large-DBH trees and had a higher attack rate on the bolts of these trees. Y-tube assays showed that RTBs preferred the volatiles released by large-DBH trees to those released by small-DBH trees. Subsequent analysis revealed that both large- and small-DBH trees had the same composition of monoterpenes, but the concentration of each component differed; thus it appeared that the concentrations acted as cues for RTBs to locate the right-sized host which was confirmed by further behavioral assays. Moreover, large-DBH pine trees provided more spacious habitat and contained more nutrients, such as nitrogen, than did small-DBH pine trees, which benefited RTBs' fecundity and larval development. RTBs seem to have evolved mechanisms to locate those large hosts that will allow them to maximize their fitness. Monoterpene variation mediated attack preference implies the potential for the management of RTB.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus