Limits...
Comparative analysis of the volatile fraction of fruit juice from different Citrus species.

González-Mas MC, Rambla JL, Alamar MC, Gutiérrez A, Granell A - PLoS ONE (2011)

Bottom Line: Over one hundred compounds were profiled after HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis, including 27 esters, 23 aldehydes, 21 alcohols, 13 monoterpene hydrocarbons, 10 ketones, 5 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 4 monoterpene cyclic ethers, 4 furans, and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons, which were all confirmed with standards.The differences in the volatile profile among juices of these varieties were essentially quantitative and only a few compounds were found exclusively in a single variety, mainly in Chandler.Some compounds (6 esters, 2 ketones, 1 furan and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons) had never been reported earlier in Citrus juices.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centro de Citricultura, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias, Moncada, Valencia, Spain. gonzalez_mde@gva.es

ABSTRACT
The volatile composition of fruit from four Citrus varieties (Powell Navel orange, Clemenules mandarine, and Fortune mandarine and Chandler pummelo) covering four different species has been studied. Over one hundred compounds were profiled after HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis, including 27 esters, 23 aldehydes, 21 alcohols, 13 monoterpene hydrocarbons, 10 ketones, 5 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 4 monoterpene cyclic ethers, 4 furans, and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons, which were all confirmed with standards. The differences in the volatile profile among juices of these varieties were essentially quantitative and only a few compounds were found exclusively in a single variety, mainly in Chandler. The volatile profile however was able to differentiate all four varieties and revealed complex interactions between them including the participation in the same biosynthetic pathway. Some compounds (6 esters, 2 ketones, 1 furan and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons) had never been reported earlier in Citrus juices. This volatile profiling platform for Citrus juice by HS-SPME-GC-MS and the interrelationship detected among the volatiles can be used as a roadmap for future breeding or biotechnological applications.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Heatmap of the correlation matrix of the volatile compounds.Positive correlations are shown in red; negative correlations in green; absence of correlation in black.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3139606&req=5

pone-0022016-g004: Heatmap of the correlation matrix of the volatile compounds.Positive correlations are shown in red; negative correlations in green; absence of correlation in black.

Mentions: Correlation analysis of the volatile compounds was also performed, in order to assess how these metabolites were related to each other. When compared to the hierarchical cluster analysis, results are basically consistent. Basically, highly positively correlated volatiles were grouped in the same cluster, and compounds in distant clusters tend to show negative or non-significant correlations (Figure 4, Table S1). When descending to the metabolite to metabolite level, it can be observed a general pattern of high positive correlations of ester compounds to both their alcoholic precursor and other structurally similar esters. This suggests that the levels of these compounds, which show up to 500-fold variations between varieties, could be regulated both by enzymatic activity (by means of relatively specific alcohol acyl transferases) and by substrate availability. A strong negative correlation between ester and aldehyde levels is also observed. This also suggests an important role for alcohol dehydrogenase enzymes activity in the differences detected between the volatile profiles of Chandler, otherwise basically rich in sesquiterpenes and aliphatic aldehydes, and the other varieties with a volatile profile with higher abundance of alcohols and esters.


Comparative analysis of the volatile fraction of fruit juice from different Citrus species.

González-Mas MC, Rambla JL, Alamar MC, Gutiérrez A, Granell A - PLoS ONE (2011)

Heatmap of the correlation matrix of the volatile compounds.Positive correlations are shown in red; negative correlations in green; absence of correlation in black.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3139606&req=5

pone-0022016-g004: Heatmap of the correlation matrix of the volatile compounds.Positive correlations are shown in red; negative correlations in green; absence of correlation in black.
Mentions: Correlation analysis of the volatile compounds was also performed, in order to assess how these metabolites were related to each other. When compared to the hierarchical cluster analysis, results are basically consistent. Basically, highly positively correlated volatiles were grouped in the same cluster, and compounds in distant clusters tend to show negative or non-significant correlations (Figure 4, Table S1). When descending to the metabolite to metabolite level, it can be observed a general pattern of high positive correlations of ester compounds to both their alcoholic precursor and other structurally similar esters. This suggests that the levels of these compounds, which show up to 500-fold variations between varieties, could be regulated both by enzymatic activity (by means of relatively specific alcohol acyl transferases) and by substrate availability. A strong negative correlation between ester and aldehyde levels is also observed. This also suggests an important role for alcohol dehydrogenase enzymes activity in the differences detected between the volatile profiles of Chandler, otherwise basically rich in sesquiterpenes and aliphatic aldehydes, and the other varieties with a volatile profile with higher abundance of alcohols and esters.

Bottom Line: Over one hundred compounds were profiled after HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis, including 27 esters, 23 aldehydes, 21 alcohols, 13 monoterpene hydrocarbons, 10 ketones, 5 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 4 monoterpene cyclic ethers, 4 furans, and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons, which were all confirmed with standards.The differences in the volatile profile among juices of these varieties were essentially quantitative and only a few compounds were found exclusively in a single variety, mainly in Chandler.Some compounds (6 esters, 2 ketones, 1 furan and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons) had never been reported earlier in Citrus juices.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centro de Citricultura, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias, Moncada, Valencia, Spain. gonzalez_mde@gva.es

ABSTRACT
The volatile composition of fruit from four Citrus varieties (Powell Navel orange, Clemenules mandarine, and Fortune mandarine and Chandler pummelo) covering four different species has been studied. Over one hundred compounds were profiled after HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis, including 27 esters, 23 aldehydes, 21 alcohols, 13 monoterpene hydrocarbons, 10 ketones, 5 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 4 monoterpene cyclic ethers, 4 furans, and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons, which were all confirmed with standards. The differences in the volatile profile among juices of these varieties were essentially quantitative and only a few compounds were found exclusively in a single variety, mainly in Chandler. The volatile profile however was able to differentiate all four varieties and revealed complex interactions between them including the participation in the same biosynthetic pathway. Some compounds (6 esters, 2 ketones, 1 furan and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons) had never been reported earlier in Citrus juices. This volatile profiling platform for Citrus juice by HS-SPME-GC-MS and the interrelationship detected among the volatiles can be used as a roadmap for future breeding or biotechnological applications.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus