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Comparative analysis of the volatile fraction of fruit juice from different Citrus species.

González-Mas MC, Rambla JL, Alamar MC, Gutiérrez A, Granell A - PLoS ONE (2011)

Bottom Line: Over one hundred compounds were profiled after HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis, including 27 esters, 23 aldehydes, 21 alcohols, 13 monoterpene hydrocarbons, 10 ketones, 5 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 4 monoterpene cyclic ethers, 4 furans, and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons, which were all confirmed with standards.The differences in the volatile profile among juices of these varieties were essentially quantitative and only a few compounds were found exclusively in a single variety, mainly in Chandler.Some compounds (6 esters, 2 ketones, 1 furan and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons) had never been reported earlier in Citrus juices.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centro de Citricultura, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias, Moncada, Valencia, Spain. gonzalez_mde@gva.es

ABSTRACT
The volatile composition of fruit from four Citrus varieties (Powell Navel orange, Clemenules mandarine, and Fortune mandarine and Chandler pummelo) covering four different species has been studied. Over one hundred compounds were profiled after HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis, including 27 esters, 23 aldehydes, 21 alcohols, 13 monoterpene hydrocarbons, 10 ketones, 5 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 4 monoterpene cyclic ethers, 4 furans, and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons, which were all confirmed with standards. The differences in the volatile profile among juices of these varieties were essentially quantitative and only a few compounds were found exclusively in a single variety, mainly in Chandler. The volatile profile however was able to differentiate all four varieties and revealed complex interactions between them including the participation in the same biosynthetic pathway. Some compounds (6 esters, 2 ketones, 1 furan and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons) had never been reported earlier in Citrus juices. This volatile profiling platform for Citrus juice by HS-SPME-GC-MS and the interrelationship detected among the volatiles can be used as a roadmap for future breeding or biotechnological applications.

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Principal Component Analysis loading plot (p[1] vs p[2]) for the first and second principal components.Each number corresponds to a particular volatile compound, as indicated in Table 1.
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pone-0022016-g002: Principal Component Analysis loading plot (p[1] vs p[2]) for the first and second principal components.Each number corresponds to a particular volatile compound, as indicated in Table 1.

Mentions: Analysis of the loadings plot reveals the compounds responsible of the separation between samples (Figure 2). The most relevant for the first component is a group of mostly terpenic compounds (β-caryophyllene, (Z)-ocimene, (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, (Z)- and (E)-linalool oxides, p-cymene) which is almost exclusive of Chandler pummelo, and the compound octyl acetate, a metabolite present at relatively very high levels in Powell. The second component is defined by a group of compounds, mostly esters, with contrasting relative levels between Clemenules and Powell. The most relevant compounds contributing to the separation of Fortune from the other varieties are revealed by the loadings plot corresponding to the third component (Figure S2), and include propyl acetate, citronellyl acetate and ethyl acetate with higher levels in Fortune, and (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, eucalyptol, 3-carene and 1-decanol with lower levels in this variety.


Comparative analysis of the volatile fraction of fruit juice from different Citrus species.

González-Mas MC, Rambla JL, Alamar MC, Gutiérrez A, Granell A - PLoS ONE (2011)

Principal Component Analysis loading plot (p[1] vs p[2]) for the first and second principal components.Each number corresponds to a particular volatile compound, as indicated in Table 1.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3139606&req=5

pone-0022016-g002: Principal Component Analysis loading plot (p[1] vs p[2]) for the first and second principal components.Each number corresponds to a particular volatile compound, as indicated in Table 1.
Mentions: Analysis of the loadings plot reveals the compounds responsible of the separation between samples (Figure 2). The most relevant for the first component is a group of mostly terpenic compounds (β-caryophyllene, (Z)-ocimene, (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, (Z)- and (E)-linalool oxides, p-cymene) which is almost exclusive of Chandler pummelo, and the compound octyl acetate, a metabolite present at relatively very high levels in Powell. The second component is defined by a group of compounds, mostly esters, with contrasting relative levels between Clemenules and Powell. The most relevant compounds contributing to the separation of Fortune from the other varieties are revealed by the loadings plot corresponding to the third component (Figure S2), and include propyl acetate, citronellyl acetate and ethyl acetate with higher levels in Fortune, and (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, eucalyptol, 3-carene and 1-decanol with lower levels in this variety.

Bottom Line: Over one hundred compounds were profiled after HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis, including 27 esters, 23 aldehydes, 21 alcohols, 13 monoterpene hydrocarbons, 10 ketones, 5 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 4 monoterpene cyclic ethers, 4 furans, and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons, which were all confirmed with standards.The differences in the volatile profile among juices of these varieties were essentially quantitative and only a few compounds were found exclusively in a single variety, mainly in Chandler.Some compounds (6 esters, 2 ketones, 1 furan and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons) had never been reported earlier in Citrus juices.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centro de Citricultura, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias, Moncada, Valencia, Spain. gonzalez_mde@gva.es

ABSTRACT
The volatile composition of fruit from four Citrus varieties (Powell Navel orange, Clemenules mandarine, and Fortune mandarine and Chandler pummelo) covering four different species has been studied. Over one hundred compounds were profiled after HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis, including 27 esters, 23 aldehydes, 21 alcohols, 13 monoterpene hydrocarbons, 10 ketones, 5 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 4 monoterpene cyclic ethers, 4 furans, and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons, which were all confirmed with standards. The differences in the volatile profile among juices of these varieties were essentially quantitative and only a few compounds were found exclusively in a single variety, mainly in Chandler. The volatile profile however was able to differentiate all four varieties and revealed complex interactions between them including the participation in the same biosynthetic pathway. Some compounds (6 esters, 2 ketones, 1 furan and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons) had never been reported earlier in Citrus juices. This volatile profiling platform for Citrus juice by HS-SPME-GC-MS and the interrelationship detected among the volatiles can be used as a roadmap for future breeding or biotechnological applications.

Show MeSH