Limits...
Global diversity of Ascidiacea.

Shenkar N, Swalla BJ - PLoS ONE (2011)

Bottom Line: The highest number of species and families is found in the order Aplousobranchia.We emphasize the strong association between species richness and sampling efforts, and discuss the risks of invasive species.Our inventory is certainly incomplete as the ascidian fauna in many areas around the world is relatively poorly known, and many new species continue to be discovered and described each year.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America. nshenkar@u.washington.edu

ABSTRACT
The class Ascidiacea presents fundamental opportunities for research in the fields of development, evolution, ecology, natural products and more. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge regarding the global biodiversity of the class Ascidiacea, focusing in their taxonomy, main regions of biodiversity, and distribution patterns. Based on analysis of the literature and the species registered in the online World Register of Marine Species, we assembled a list of 2815 described species. The highest number of species and families is found in the order Aplousobranchia. Didemnidae and Styelidae families have the highest number of species with more than 500 within each group. Sixty percent of described species are colonial. Species richness is highest in tropical regions, where colonial species predominate. In higher latitudes solitary species gradually contribute more to the total species richness. We emphasize the strong association between species richness and sampling efforts, and discuss the risks of invasive species. Our inventory is certainly incomplete as the ascidian fauna in many areas around the world is relatively poorly known, and many new species continue to be discovered and described each year.

Show MeSH
Ascidian global distribution (abyssal species not included).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3119061&req=5

pone-0020657-g004: Ascidian global distribution (abyssal species not included).

Mentions: Fig. 4 provides a summary of species richness in different regions of the world. A complete list of sites and references is provided in Table 2. The highest number of ascidian species is found in the Indo-Pacific, with inventory numbers such as 317 species from New-Caledonia, 187 species from the Western Pacific ocean, 117 and 102 species from Guam and Gulf of Siam area (numbers represent the exact number of species mentioned in each citation). The ascidian fauna along the coasts of Australia and New Zealand was studied extensively, resulting in records of 717 species from Australia, 249 species from Tasmania, and 124 species from New Zealand. At higher latitudes, the Mediterranean and Japan each represent areas with high number of species with about 229 species from the Mediterranean and 163 species in Japan. Antarctica and South Africa also have extensive records of ascidian species of 107 and 168 species respectively. The North American coasts have been studied thoroughly with approximately 170 species along both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts.


Global diversity of Ascidiacea.

Shenkar N, Swalla BJ - PLoS ONE (2011)

Ascidian global distribution (abyssal species not included).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3119061&req=5

pone-0020657-g004: Ascidian global distribution (abyssal species not included).
Mentions: Fig. 4 provides a summary of species richness in different regions of the world. A complete list of sites and references is provided in Table 2. The highest number of ascidian species is found in the Indo-Pacific, with inventory numbers such as 317 species from New-Caledonia, 187 species from the Western Pacific ocean, 117 and 102 species from Guam and Gulf of Siam area (numbers represent the exact number of species mentioned in each citation). The ascidian fauna along the coasts of Australia and New Zealand was studied extensively, resulting in records of 717 species from Australia, 249 species from Tasmania, and 124 species from New Zealand. At higher latitudes, the Mediterranean and Japan each represent areas with high number of species with about 229 species from the Mediterranean and 163 species in Japan. Antarctica and South Africa also have extensive records of ascidian species of 107 and 168 species respectively. The North American coasts have been studied thoroughly with approximately 170 species along both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts.

Bottom Line: The highest number of species and families is found in the order Aplousobranchia.We emphasize the strong association between species richness and sampling efforts, and discuss the risks of invasive species.Our inventory is certainly incomplete as the ascidian fauna in many areas around the world is relatively poorly known, and many new species continue to be discovered and described each year.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America. nshenkar@u.washington.edu

ABSTRACT
The class Ascidiacea presents fundamental opportunities for research in the fields of development, evolution, ecology, natural products and more. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge regarding the global biodiversity of the class Ascidiacea, focusing in their taxonomy, main regions of biodiversity, and distribution patterns. Based on analysis of the literature and the species registered in the online World Register of Marine Species, we assembled a list of 2815 described species. The highest number of species and families is found in the order Aplousobranchia. Didemnidae and Styelidae families have the highest number of species with more than 500 within each group. Sixty percent of described species are colonial. Species richness is highest in tropical regions, where colonial species predominate. In higher latitudes solitary species gradually contribute more to the total species richness. We emphasize the strong association between species richness and sampling efforts, and discuss the risks of invasive species. Our inventory is certainly incomplete as the ascidian fauna in many areas around the world is relatively poorly known, and many new species continue to be discovered and described each year.

Show MeSH