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Global diversity of Ascidiacea.

Shenkar N, Swalla BJ - PLoS ONE (2011)

Bottom Line: The highest number of species and families is found in the order Aplousobranchia.We emphasize the strong association between species richness and sampling efforts, and discuss the risks of invasive species.Our inventory is certainly incomplete as the ascidian fauna in many areas around the world is relatively poorly known, and many new species continue to be discovered and described each year.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America. nshenkar@u.washington.edu

ABSTRACT
The class Ascidiacea presents fundamental opportunities for research in the fields of development, evolution, ecology, natural products and more. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge regarding the global biodiversity of the class Ascidiacea, focusing in their taxonomy, main regions of biodiversity, and distribution patterns. Based on analysis of the literature and the species registered in the online World Register of Marine Species, we assembled a list of 2815 described species. The highest number of species and families is found in the order Aplousobranchia. Didemnidae and Styelidae families have the highest number of species with more than 500 within each group. Sixty percent of described species are colonial. Species richness is highest in tropical regions, where colonial species predominate. In higher latitudes solitary species gradually contribute more to the total species richness. We emphasize the strong association between species richness and sampling efforts, and discuss the risks of invasive species. Our inventory is certainly incomplete as the ascidian fauna in many areas around the world is relatively poorly known, and many new species continue to be discovered and described each year.

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Discovery rate and author contribution.a) Cumulative number of valid ascidian species described between 1750–2010; b) Percentage and number of species described per taxonomic authority. Note: only taxonomic authorities with more than 100 species are mentioned by name.
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pone-0020657-g003: Discovery rate and author contribution.a) Cumulative number of valid ascidian species described between 1750–2010; b) Percentage and number of species described per taxonomic authority. Note: only taxonomic authorities with more than 100 species are mentioned by name.

Mentions: The discovery rate of ascidian species from 1756 until 2010 is presented in Fig. 3a. The rate of discovery has accelerated since 1950, when the major taxonomists of this group, P. Kott, C. and F. Monniot, and R.H. Millar began publishing. Over 1600 species have been described by these experts including the numerous descriptions by C.P. Sluiter and W.A. Herdman from the late 19th century-beginning of the 20th century. Figure 3b summarizes the contribution of the major taxonomists to total ascidian species described. Only authors responsible for more than 100 descriptions are mentioned by name; Claude and Françoise Monniot were grouped together due to their numerous collaborative publications.


Global diversity of Ascidiacea.

Shenkar N, Swalla BJ - PLoS ONE (2011)

Discovery rate and author contribution.a) Cumulative number of valid ascidian species described between 1750–2010; b) Percentage and number of species described per taxonomic authority. Note: only taxonomic authorities with more than 100 species are mentioned by name.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3119061&req=5

pone-0020657-g003: Discovery rate and author contribution.a) Cumulative number of valid ascidian species described between 1750–2010; b) Percentage and number of species described per taxonomic authority. Note: only taxonomic authorities with more than 100 species are mentioned by name.
Mentions: The discovery rate of ascidian species from 1756 until 2010 is presented in Fig. 3a. The rate of discovery has accelerated since 1950, when the major taxonomists of this group, P. Kott, C. and F. Monniot, and R.H. Millar began publishing. Over 1600 species have been described by these experts including the numerous descriptions by C.P. Sluiter and W.A. Herdman from the late 19th century-beginning of the 20th century. Figure 3b summarizes the contribution of the major taxonomists to total ascidian species described. Only authors responsible for more than 100 descriptions are mentioned by name; Claude and Françoise Monniot were grouped together due to their numerous collaborative publications.

Bottom Line: The highest number of species and families is found in the order Aplousobranchia.We emphasize the strong association between species richness and sampling efforts, and discuss the risks of invasive species.Our inventory is certainly incomplete as the ascidian fauna in many areas around the world is relatively poorly known, and many new species continue to be discovered and described each year.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America. nshenkar@u.washington.edu

ABSTRACT
The class Ascidiacea presents fundamental opportunities for research in the fields of development, evolution, ecology, natural products and more. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge regarding the global biodiversity of the class Ascidiacea, focusing in their taxonomy, main regions of biodiversity, and distribution patterns. Based on analysis of the literature and the species registered in the online World Register of Marine Species, we assembled a list of 2815 described species. The highest number of species and families is found in the order Aplousobranchia. Didemnidae and Styelidae families have the highest number of species with more than 500 within each group. Sixty percent of described species are colonial. Species richness is highest in tropical regions, where colonial species predominate. In higher latitudes solitary species gradually contribute more to the total species richness. We emphasize the strong association between species richness and sampling efforts, and discuss the risks of invasive species. Our inventory is certainly incomplete as the ascidian fauna in many areas around the world is relatively poorly known, and many new species continue to be discovered and described each year.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus