Limits...
Swedish snus and the GothiaTek® standard.

Rutqvist LE, Curvall M, Hassler T, Ringberger T, Wahlberg I - Harm Reduct J (2011)

Bottom Line: Some smokeless tobacco products, such as Swedish snus, are today considered to be associated with substantially fewer health hazards than cigarettes.These measures have been successively introduced during the past 30-40 years.In the late 1990s they formed the basis for a voluntary quality standard for Swedish snus named GothiaTek®.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Scientific Affairs Group, Swedish Match AB, Maria Skolgata 83, 118 85 Stockholm, Sweden. lars-erik.rutqvist@swedishmatch.com.

ABSTRACT
Some smokeless tobacco products, such as Swedish snus, are today considered to be associated with substantially fewer health hazards than cigarettes. This risk differential has contributed to the scientific debate about the possibilities of harm reduction within the tobacco area. Although current manufacturing methods for snus build on those that were introduced more than a century ago, the low levels of unwanted substances in modern Swedish snus are largely due to improvements in production techniques and selection of raw materials in combination with several programs for quality assurance and quality control. These measures have been successively introduced during the past 30-40 years. In the late 1990s they formed the basis for a voluntary quality standard for Swedish snus named GothiaTek®. In recent years the standard has been accepted by the members of the trade organization European Smokeless Tobacco Council (ESTOC) so it has now evolved into an industrial standard for all smokeless tobacco products in Europe.The initial impetus for the mentioned changes of the production was quality problems related to microbial activity and formation of ammonia and nitrite in the finished products. Other contributing factors were that snus came under the jurisdiction of the Swedish Food Act in 1971, and concerns that emerged in the 1960s and 1970s about health effects of tobacco, and the significance of agrochemical residues and other potential toxicants in food stuffs.This paper summarizes the historical development of the manufacture of Swedish snus, describes the chemical composition of modern snus, and gives the background and rationale for the GothiaTek® standard, including the selection of constituents for which the standard sets limits. The paper also discusses the potential future of this voluntary standard in relation to current discussions about tobacco harm reduction and regulatory science in tobacco control.

No MeSH data available.


Natural decline of pH in snus (pouch products) manufactured according to the GothiaTek® standard during storage at 20 degrees centigrade (data based on internal Swedish Match documentation).
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Figure 2: Natural decline of pH in snus (pouch products) manufactured according to the GothiaTek® standard during storage at 20 degrees centigrade (data based on internal Swedish Match documentation).

Mentions: It has always been known that snus has a limited shelf life and in this regard suffers from similar problems as most other food stuffs with a high water content. However, before the introduction of the modified production techniques in 1982, the most prominent problems with snus quality were related to microbial activity, formation of nitrite (and, hence, probably TSNA formation), and an uncontrolled increase in pH. Snus produced with the modern techniques has a very low microbial activity and is thus much more stable. Today, ageing implies reduced water content, and a consequent loss of perceived product freshness, decrease in pH (related to a combination of oxidation of tobacco constituents and evaporation of volatile amines, including ammonia) and a decrease in nicotine content also due to oxidation. Figure 2 shows the natural decline of pH over time at room temperature in modern snus. Nitrosamines are not formed in the container during storage, even if kept at room temperature [16]. Snus ageing can be slowed by keeping the product refrigerated below 8 degrees centigrade. Ageing is more or less halted if the product is deep frozen.


Swedish snus and the GothiaTek® standard.

Rutqvist LE, Curvall M, Hassler T, Ringberger T, Wahlberg I - Harm Reduct J (2011)

Natural decline of pH in snus (pouch products) manufactured according to the GothiaTek® standard during storage at 20 degrees centigrade (data based on internal Swedish Match documentation).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3119032&req=5

Figure 2: Natural decline of pH in snus (pouch products) manufactured according to the GothiaTek® standard during storage at 20 degrees centigrade (data based on internal Swedish Match documentation).
Mentions: It has always been known that snus has a limited shelf life and in this regard suffers from similar problems as most other food stuffs with a high water content. However, before the introduction of the modified production techniques in 1982, the most prominent problems with snus quality were related to microbial activity, formation of nitrite (and, hence, probably TSNA formation), and an uncontrolled increase in pH. Snus produced with the modern techniques has a very low microbial activity and is thus much more stable. Today, ageing implies reduced water content, and a consequent loss of perceived product freshness, decrease in pH (related to a combination of oxidation of tobacco constituents and evaporation of volatile amines, including ammonia) and a decrease in nicotine content also due to oxidation. Figure 2 shows the natural decline of pH over time at room temperature in modern snus. Nitrosamines are not formed in the container during storage, even if kept at room temperature [16]. Snus ageing can be slowed by keeping the product refrigerated below 8 degrees centigrade. Ageing is more or less halted if the product is deep frozen.

Bottom Line: Some smokeless tobacco products, such as Swedish snus, are today considered to be associated with substantially fewer health hazards than cigarettes.These measures have been successively introduced during the past 30-40 years.In the late 1990s they formed the basis for a voluntary quality standard for Swedish snus named GothiaTek®.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Scientific Affairs Group, Swedish Match AB, Maria Skolgata 83, 118 85 Stockholm, Sweden. lars-erik.rutqvist@swedishmatch.com.

ABSTRACT
Some smokeless tobacco products, such as Swedish snus, are today considered to be associated with substantially fewer health hazards than cigarettes. This risk differential has contributed to the scientific debate about the possibilities of harm reduction within the tobacco area. Although current manufacturing methods for snus build on those that were introduced more than a century ago, the low levels of unwanted substances in modern Swedish snus are largely due to improvements in production techniques and selection of raw materials in combination with several programs for quality assurance and quality control. These measures have been successively introduced during the past 30-40 years. In the late 1990s they formed the basis for a voluntary quality standard for Swedish snus named GothiaTek®. In recent years the standard has been accepted by the members of the trade organization European Smokeless Tobacco Council (ESTOC) so it has now evolved into an industrial standard for all smokeless tobacco products in Europe.The initial impetus for the mentioned changes of the production was quality problems related to microbial activity and formation of ammonia and nitrite in the finished products. Other contributing factors were that snus came under the jurisdiction of the Swedish Food Act in 1971, and concerns that emerged in the 1960s and 1970s about health effects of tobacco, and the significance of agrochemical residues and other potential toxicants in food stuffs.This paper summarizes the historical development of the manufacture of Swedish snus, describes the chemical composition of modern snus, and gives the background and rationale for the GothiaTek® standard, including the selection of constituents for which the standard sets limits. The paper also discusses the potential future of this voluntary standard in relation to current discussions about tobacco harm reduction and regulatory science in tobacco control.

No MeSH data available.