Limits...
Characterization of herpes simplex virus clinical isolate Y3369 as a glycoprotein G variant and its bearing on virus typing.

Clark DN, Poole BD, Hammond DV, Hedman TJ, Catts DS, Stewart A, Johnson FB - Virol. J. (2011)

Bottom Line: A mutation which likely caused the monoclonal antibody non-reactivity was found in glycoprotein G.To this point, the epitope which the monoclonal antibody recognizes was only found in HSV-1 isolates from human European populations (p < 0.0001).These findings suggest that the PCR-based methods for HSV typing may be more useful than the standard monoclonal antibody test in areas of the world where the variant in glycoprotein G is more prevalent.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602, USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Herpes simplex viruses exist as two major serotypes, type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2). Determination of type, either HSV-1 or HSV-2, is important in accurate diagnosis and clinical control of transmission. Several tests are available for typing HSV, including a monoclonal antibody specific for glycoprotein G and several PCR assays.

Findings: A clinical isolate was identified as herpes simplex virus, but tested negative for both HSV-1 and HSV-2 antigens using type-specific monoclonal antibody assays. The isolate was determined to be HSV-1 by PCR analysis. A mutation which likely caused the monoclonal antibody non-reactivity was found in glycoprotein G. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two groups of HSV, one with the mutation and one without. Three population studies examining mutations in HSV-1 glycoprotein G were analyzed by chi-squared test. To this point, the epitope which the monoclonal antibody recognizes was only found in HSV-1 isolates from human European populations (p < 0.0001).

Conclusions: These findings suggest that the PCR-based methods for HSV typing may be more useful than the standard monoclonal antibody test in areas of the world where the variant in glycoprotein G is more prevalent.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Phylogenetic analysis reveals two groups of variations within HSV-1 glycoprotein G by region. The evolutionary history was inferred using the UPGMA method. The tree is drawn to scale, with evolutionary distances in the units of base substitutions per site. There were a total of 165 positions, coding for AA 110 to 164. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted in MEGA4 [15]. Labeled branches represent the number of isolates from the specified region. Sequences shown at the bottom are from the branches highlighted with colored dots, which represent the most common sequence. Positions where sequences V and F differ are in color. The immunodominant region of glycoprotein G is enclosed by a box. The epitope AFPL (underlined, present exclusively in sequence F) is recognized by a common anti-glycoprotein G-1 mAb. The clinical isolate Y3369 discussed herein contains sequence V.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3118968&req=5

Figure 4: Phylogenetic analysis reveals two groups of variations within HSV-1 glycoprotein G by region. The evolutionary history was inferred using the UPGMA method. The tree is drawn to scale, with evolutionary distances in the units of base substitutions per site. There were a total of 165 positions, coding for AA 110 to 164. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted in MEGA4 [15]. Labeled branches represent the number of isolates from the specified region. Sequences shown at the bottom are from the branches highlighted with colored dots, which represent the most common sequence. Positions where sequences V and F differ are in color. The immunodominant region of glycoprotein G is enclosed by a box. The epitope AFPL (underlined, present exclusively in sequence F) is recognized by a common anti-glycoprotein G-1 mAb. The clinical isolate Y3369 discussed herein contains sequence V.

Mentions: Sequences for the middle region encoding AA 110 to 164 of glycoprotein G were analyzed and a phylogenetic tree created (Figure 4). Phylogenetic analysis groups our isolate Y3369 as an HSV-1 with sequence V (representing valine at 111) which contains the sequence AVPL instead of AFPL, as well as other common nucleotides as shown in Figure 4. All isolates from populations from Africa and Asia, as well as 36% of the European population contained the sequence AVPL, which would not be recognized by the mAb which tests for the AFPL epitope. Another study found that all isolates with a valine residue at position 111 of glycoprotein G were untypable when assaying viral antigens [10]. This specific test would not be likely to function diagnostically in these African or Asian populations.


Characterization of herpes simplex virus clinical isolate Y3369 as a glycoprotein G variant and its bearing on virus typing.

Clark DN, Poole BD, Hammond DV, Hedman TJ, Catts DS, Stewart A, Johnson FB - Virol. J. (2011)

Phylogenetic analysis reveals two groups of variations within HSV-1 glycoprotein G by region. The evolutionary history was inferred using the UPGMA method. The tree is drawn to scale, with evolutionary distances in the units of base substitutions per site. There were a total of 165 positions, coding for AA 110 to 164. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted in MEGA4 [15]. Labeled branches represent the number of isolates from the specified region. Sequences shown at the bottom are from the branches highlighted with colored dots, which represent the most common sequence. Positions where sequences V and F differ are in color. The immunodominant region of glycoprotein G is enclosed by a box. The epitope AFPL (underlined, present exclusively in sequence F) is recognized by a common anti-glycoprotein G-1 mAb. The clinical isolate Y3369 discussed herein contains sequence V.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3118968&req=5

Figure 4: Phylogenetic analysis reveals two groups of variations within HSV-1 glycoprotein G by region. The evolutionary history was inferred using the UPGMA method. The tree is drawn to scale, with evolutionary distances in the units of base substitutions per site. There were a total of 165 positions, coding for AA 110 to 164. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted in MEGA4 [15]. Labeled branches represent the number of isolates from the specified region. Sequences shown at the bottom are from the branches highlighted with colored dots, which represent the most common sequence. Positions where sequences V and F differ are in color. The immunodominant region of glycoprotein G is enclosed by a box. The epitope AFPL (underlined, present exclusively in sequence F) is recognized by a common anti-glycoprotein G-1 mAb. The clinical isolate Y3369 discussed herein contains sequence V.
Mentions: Sequences for the middle region encoding AA 110 to 164 of glycoprotein G were analyzed and a phylogenetic tree created (Figure 4). Phylogenetic analysis groups our isolate Y3369 as an HSV-1 with sequence V (representing valine at 111) which contains the sequence AVPL instead of AFPL, as well as other common nucleotides as shown in Figure 4. All isolates from populations from Africa and Asia, as well as 36% of the European population contained the sequence AVPL, which would not be recognized by the mAb which tests for the AFPL epitope. Another study found that all isolates with a valine residue at position 111 of glycoprotein G were untypable when assaying viral antigens [10]. This specific test would not be likely to function diagnostically in these African or Asian populations.

Bottom Line: A mutation which likely caused the monoclonal antibody non-reactivity was found in glycoprotein G.To this point, the epitope which the monoclonal antibody recognizes was only found in HSV-1 isolates from human European populations (p < 0.0001).These findings suggest that the PCR-based methods for HSV typing may be more useful than the standard monoclonal antibody test in areas of the world where the variant in glycoprotein G is more prevalent.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602, USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Herpes simplex viruses exist as two major serotypes, type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2). Determination of type, either HSV-1 or HSV-2, is important in accurate diagnosis and clinical control of transmission. Several tests are available for typing HSV, including a monoclonal antibody specific for glycoprotein G and several PCR assays.

Findings: A clinical isolate was identified as herpes simplex virus, but tested negative for both HSV-1 and HSV-2 antigens using type-specific monoclonal antibody assays. The isolate was determined to be HSV-1 by PCR analysis. A mutation which likely caused the monoclonal antibody non-reactivity was found in glycoprotein G. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two groups of HSV, one with the mutation and one without. Three population studies examining mutations in HSV-1 glycoprotein G were analyzed by chi-squared test. To this point, the epitope which the monoclonal antibody recognizes was only found in HSV-1 isolates from human European populations (p < 0.0001).

Conclusions: These findings suggest that the PCR-based methods for HSV typing may be more useful than the standard monoclonal antibody test in areas of the world where the variant in glycoprotein G is more prevalent.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus