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The public health impact of coccidioidomycosis in Arizona and California.

Hector RF, Rutherford GW, Tsang CA, Erhart LM, McCotter O, Anderson SM, Komatsu K, Tabnak F, Vugia DJ, Yang Y, Galgiani JN - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2011)

Bottom Line: The numbers of reported cases of coccidioidomycosis in Arizona and California have risen dramatically over the past decade, with a 97.8% and 91.1% increase in incidence rates from 2001 to 2006 in the two states, respectively.Of those cases with reported race/ethnicity information, Black/African Americans in Arizona and Hispanics and African/Americans in California experienced a disproportionately higher frequency of disease compared to other racial/ethnic groups.Similarly, the inability of currently available therapeutics to reduce the duration and morbidity of this disease underscores the need for improved therapeutics and a preventive vaccine.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Global Health Sciences, University of California, San Francisco,1200 Beale St, #1200, San Francisco, CA 94105, USA. rhector@psg.ucsf.edu

ABSTRACT
The numbers of reported cases of coccidioidomycosis in Arizona and California have risen dramatically over the past decade, with a 97.8% and 91.1% increase in incidence rates from 2001 to 2006 in the two states, respectively. Of those cases with reported race/ethnicity information, Black/African Americans in Arizona and Hispanics and African/Americans in California experienced a disproportionately higher frequency of disease compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Lack of early diagnosis continues to be a problem, particularly in suspect community-acquired pneumonia, underscoring the need for more rapid and sensitive tests. Similarly, the inability of currently available therapeutics to reduce the duration and morbidity of this disease underscores the need for improved therapeutics and a preventive vaccine.

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Rates of reported coccidioidomycosis cases in Arizona, 1990–2009.
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f1-ijerph-08-01150: Rates of reported coccidioidomycosis cases in Arizona, 1990–2009.

Mentions: Physicians in Arizona began reporting cases of coccidioidomycosis to the ADHS in the 1930s. Noticeable increases in reported coccidioidomycosis cases became apparent in the early 1990s. From 1990 through 1995, the number of annually reported cases more than doubled from 255 (7/100,000 population) to 623 (15/100,000 population) [14]. This increase led the ADHS to change its reporting rules to make coccidioidomycosis a laboratory-reportable disease in 1997. Since implementation of this mandatory requirement, reports of coccidioidomycosis have drastically increased in Arizona. In 2006, the number of cases peaked at 5,535 (89/100,000 population) and decreased to 4,815 (75/100,000 population) in 2007 and to 4,768 (73/100,000 population) in 2008. The increase in incidence of coccidioidomycosis could be due to a number of factors, including soil disturbance due to construction for Arizona’s rising population and an influx of susceptible individuals into the population [15,16]. In June 2009, a major commercial laboratory changed its reporting practice by beginning to report positive coccidioidomycosis enzyme immunoassay (EIA) results without confirmation by immunodiffusion assay in accordance with Arizona reporting rules, thereby further increasing the number of reported coccidioidomycosis cases. In 2009, Arizona reported 10,233 coccidioidomycosis cases (155/100,000 population) (see Figure 1).


The public health impact of coccidioidomycosis in Arizona and California.

Hector RF, Rutherford GW, Tsang CA, Erhart LM, McCotter O, Anderson SM, Komatsu K, Tabnak F, Vugia DJ, Yang Y, Galgiani JN - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2011)

Rates of reported coccidioidomycosis cases in Arizona, 1990–2009.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3118883&req=5

f1-ijerph-08-01150: Rates of reported coccidioidomycosis cases in Arizona, 1990–2009.
Mentions: Physicians in Arizona began reporting cases of coccidioidomycosis to the ADHS in the 1930s. Noticeable increases in reported coccidioidomycosis cases became apparent in the early 1990s. From 1990 through 1995, the number of annually reported cases more than doubled from 255 (7/100,000 population) to 623 (15/100,000 population) [14]. This increase led the ADHS to change its reporting rules to make coccidioidomycosis a laboratory-reportable disease in 1997. Since implementation of this mandatory requirement, reports of coccidioidomycosis have drastically increased in Arizona. In 2006, the number of cases peaked at 5,535 (89/100,000 population) and decreased to 4,815 (75/100,000 population) in 2007 and to 4,768 (73/100,000 population) in 2008. The increase in incidence of coccidioidomycosis could be due to a number of factors, including soil disturbance due to construction for Arizona’s rising population and an influx of susceptible individuals into the population [15,16]. In June 2009, a major commercial laboratory changed its reporting practice by beginning to report positive coccidioidomycosis enzyme immunoassay (EIA) results without confirmation by immunodiffusion assay in accordance with Arizona reporting rules, thereby further increasing the number of reported coccidioidomycosis cases. In 2009, Arizona reported 10,233 coccidioidomycosis cases (155/100,000 population) (see Figure 1).

Bottom Line: The numbers of reported cases of coccidioidomycosis in Arizona and California have risen dramatically over the past decade, with a 97.8% and 91.1% increase in incidence rates from 2001 to 2006 in the two states, respectively.Of those cases with reported race/ethnicity information, Black/African Americans in Arizona and Hispanics and African/Americans in California experienced a disproportionately higher frequency of disease compared to other racial/ethnic groups.Similarly, the inability of currently available therapeutics to reduce the duration and morbidity of this disease underscores the need for improved therapeutics and a preventive vaccine.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Global Health Sciences, University of California, San Francisco,1200 Beale St, #1200, San Francisco, CA 94105, USA. rhector@psg.ucsf.edu

ABSTRACT
The numbers of reported cases of coccidioidomycosis in Arizona and California have risen dramatically over the past decade, with a 97.8% and 91.1% increase in incidence rates from 2001 to 2006 in the two states, respectively. Of those cases with reported race/ethnicity information, Black/African Americans in Arizona and Hispanics and African/Americans in California experienced a disproportionately higher frequency of disease compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Lack of early diagnosis continues to be a problem, particularly in suspect community-acquired pneumonia, underscoring the need for more rapid and sensitive tests. Similarly, the inability of currently available therapeutics to reduce the duration and morbidity of this disease underscores the need for improved therapeutics and a preventive vaccine.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus