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Assessment of water quality in a subtropical alpine lake using multivariate statistical techniques and geostatistical mapping: a case study.

Liu WC, Yu HL, Chung CE - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2011)

Bottom Line: In order to understand the underlying physical and chemical processes as well as their associated spatial distribution in YYL, this study analyzes fourteen physico-chemical water quality parameters recorded at the eight sampling stations during 2008-2010 by using multivariate statistical techniques and a geostatistical method.Results show that four principal components i.e., nitrogen nutrients, meteorological factor, turbidity and nitrate factors, account for 65.52% of the total variance among the water quality parameters.The spatial distribution of principal components further confirms that nitrogen sources constitute an important pollutant contribution in the YYL.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Civil Disaster Prevention Engineering, National United University, Miao-Li 36003, Taiwan. w933821@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT
Concerns about the water quality in Yuan-Yang Lake (YYL), a shallow, subtropical alpine lake located in north-central Taiwan, has been rapidly increasing recently due to the natural and anthropogenic pollution. In order to understand the underlying physical and chemical processes as well as their associated spatial distribution in YYL, this study analyzes fourteen physico-chemical water quality parameters recorded at the eight sampling stations during 2008-2010 by using multivariate statistical techniques and a geostatistical method. Hierarchical clustering analysis (CA) is first applied to distinguish the three general water quality patterns among the stations, followed by the use of principle component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA) to extract and recognize the major underlying factors contributing to the variations among the water quality measures. The spatial distribution of the identified major contributing factors is obtained by using a kriging method. Results show that four principal components i.e., nitrogen nutrients, meteorological factor, turbidity and nitrate factors, account for 65.52% of the total variance among the water quality parameters. The spatial distribution of principal components further confirms that nitrogen sources constitute an important pollutant contribution in the YYL.

Show MeSH
Location of Yuan-Yang Lake (YYL) in Taiwan and eight measurement stations in YYL.
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f1-ijerph-08-01126: Location of Yuan-Yang Lake (YYL) in Taiwan and eight measurement stations in YYL.

Mentions: The Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) program is one of the core projects of the Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystem program (GCTE), which is under the umbrella of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP). An understanding of ecological processes and of mechanisms leading to ecologically tragic events is particularly important for the sustainability of Taiwan Island. To meet such a requirement, the LTER project was initiated in 1992 on the island. Yuan-Yang Lake (YYL) is one of the six LTER sites and the only site associated with a mountain lake ecosystem in Taiwan. YYL, a small (3.6 ha) and shallow (4.5 m maximum depth) lake in a mountainous catchment 1,730 m above sea level, is located in the northeastern region of Taiwan (24°35′ N, 121°24′E) (Figure 1). The lake and surrounding catchment (374 ha) were designated as a long-term ecological study site by the Taiwan National Science Council in 1992 and joined the Global Lake Ecological Observatory Network (GLEON) in 2004. The lake is an important site for studying physical characteristics, water quality, and ecosystems. Recently, the lake has been subject to pollution sources from recreational activities, therefore the investigation of water quality is urgent and necessary.


Assessment of water quality in a subtropical alpine lake using multivariate statistical techniques and geostatistical mapping: a case study.

Liu WC, Yu HL, Chung CE - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2011)

Location of Yuan-Yang Lake (YYL) in Taiwan and eight measurement stations in YYL.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3118881&req=5

f1-ijerph-08-01126: Location of Yuan-Yang Lake (YYL) in Taiwan and eight measurement stations in YYL.
Mentions: The Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) program is one of the core projects of the Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystem program (GCTE), which is under the umbrella of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP). An understanding of ecological processes and of mechanisms leading to ecologically tragic events is particularly important for the sustainability of Taiwan Island. To meet such a requirement, the LTER project was initiated in 1992 on the island. Yuan-Yang Lake (YYL) is one of the six LTER sites and the only site associated with a mountain lake ecosystem in Taiwan. YYL, a small (3.6 ha) and shallow (4.5 m maximum depth) lake in a mountainous catchment 1,730 m above sea level, is located in the northeastern region of Taiwan (24°35′ N, 121°24′E) (Figure 1). The lake and surrounding catchment (374 ha) were designated as a long-term ecological study site by the Taiwan National Science Council in 1992 and joined the Global Lake Ecological Observatory Network (GLEON) in 2004. The lake is an important site for studying physical characteristics, water quality, and ecosystems. Recently, the lake has been subject to pollution sources from recreational activities, therefore the investigation of water quality is urgent and necessary.

Bottom Line: In order to understand the underlying physical and chemical processes as well as their associated spatial distribution in YYL, this study analyzes fourteen physico-chemical water quality parameters recorded at the eight sampling stations during 2008-2010 by using multivariate statistical techniques and a geostatistical method.Results show that four principal components i.e., nitrogen nutrients, meteorological factor, turbidity and nitrate factors, account for 65.52% of the total variance among the water quality parameters.The spatial distribution of principal components further confirms that nitrogen sources constitute an important pollutant contribution in the YYL.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Civil Disaster Prevention Engineering, National United University, Miao-Li 36003, Taiwan. w933821@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT
Concerns about the water quality in Yuan-Yang Lake (YYL), a shallow, subtropical alpine lake located in north-central Taiwan, has been rapidly increasing recently due to the natural and anthropogenic pollution. In order to understand the underlying physical and chemical processes as well as their associated spatial distribution in YYL, this study analyzes fourteen physico-chemical water quality parameters recorded at the eight sampling stations during 2008-2010 by using multivariate statistical techniques and a geostatistical method. Hierarchical clustering analysis (CA) is first applied to distinguish the three general water quality patterns among the stations, followed by the use of principle component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA) to extract and recognize the major underlying factors contributing to the variations among the water quality measures. The spatial distribution of the identified major contributing factors is obtained by using a kriging method. Results show that four principal components i.e., nitrogen nutrients, meteorological factor, turbidity and nitrate factors, account for 65.52% of the total variance among the water quality parameters. The spatial distribution of principal components further confirms that nitrogen sources constitute an important pollutant contribution in the YYL.

Show MeSH