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Pancytopenia: a clinico hematological study.

Gayathri BN, Rao KS - J Lab Physicians (2011)

Bottom Line: The commonest physical finding was pallor, followed by splenomegaly and hepatomegaly.Dimorphic anemia was the predominant blood picture.These are also helpful in planning further investigations and management.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pathology, SDUMC, Tamaka, Kolar, India.

ABSTRACT

Background: Pancytopenia is a relatively common hematological entity. It is a striking feature of many serious and life-threatening illnesses, ranging from simple drug-induced bone marrow hypoplasia, megaloblastic anemia to fatal bone marrow aplasias and leukemias. The severity of pancytopenia and the underlying pathology determine the management and prognosis. Thus, identification of the correct cause will help in implementing appropriate therapy.

Objectives: To study the clinical presentations in pancytopenia due to various causes; and to evaluate hematological parameters, including bone marrow aspiration.

Materials and methods: It was a prospective study, and 104 pancytopenic patients were evaluated clinically, along with hematological parameters and bone marrow aspiration in Hematology Unit, Department of Pathology, JJMMC, Davanagere, during the period of September 2005 to September 2007.

Results: Among 104 cases studied, age of patients ranged from 2 to 80 years with a mean age of 41 years, and male predominance. Most of the patients presented with generalized weakness and fever. The commonest physical finding was pallor, followed by splenomegaly and hepatomegaly. Dimorphic anemia was the predominant blood picture. Bone marrow aspiration was conclusive in all cases. The commonest marrow finding was hypercellularity with megaloblastic erythropoiesis. The commonest cause for pancytopenia was megaloblastic anemia (74.04%), followed by aplastic anemia (18.26%).

Conclusion: Thepresent study concludes that detailed primary hematological investigations along with bone marrow aspiration in cytopenic patients are helpful for understanding disease process and to diagnose or to rule out the causes of cytopenia. These are also helpful in planning further investigations and management.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Bone marrow showing hypocellularity with increased fat and reactive lymphoplasmacytosis (Leishman, ×100)
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Figure 3: Bone marrow showing hypocellularity with increased fat and reactive lymphoplasmacytosis (Leishman, ×100)

Mentions: Aplastic anemia was seen in 10 males and 9 females; their age ranged from 2 to 50 years, with a mean age of 26 years. In the present study, out of 19 cases of bone marrow hypoplasia, cause was not known in 16 cases and was grouped under idiopathic bone marrow hypoplasia. One patient had history of hepatitis infection. Another patient gave history of reatment with carbamazepine for epilepsy. One patient, a known case of hyperthyroidism, was on antithyroid medication. Bone marrow (BM) showed hypocellularity with suppression of erythropoiesis, myelopoiesis and megakaryopoiesis with relative lymphoplasmacytosis [Figure 3].


Pancytopenia: a clinico hematological study.

Gayathri BN, Rao KS - J Lab Physicians (2011)

Bone marrow showing hypocellularity with increased fat and reactive lymphoplasmacytosis (Leishman, ×100)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3118050&req=5

Figure 3: Bone marrow showing hypocellularity with increased fat and reactive lymphoplasmacytosis (Leishman, ×100)
Mentions: Aplastic anemia was seen in 10 males and 9 females; their age ranged from 2 to 50 years, with a mean age of 26 years. In the present study, out of 19 cases of bone marrow hypoplasia, cause was not known in 16 cases and was grouped under idiopathic bone marrow hypoplasia. One patient had history of hepatitis infection. Another patient gave history of reatment with carbamazepine for epilepsy. One patient, a known case of hyperthyroidism, was on antithyroid medication. Bone marrow (BM) showed hypocellularity with suppression of erythropoiesis, myelopoiesis and megakaryopoiesis with relative lymphoplasmacytosis [Figure 3].

Bottom Line: The commonest physical finding was pallor, followed by splenomegaly and hepatomegaly.Dimorphic anemia was the predominant blood picture.These are also helpful in planning further investigations and management.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pathology, SDUMC, Tamaka, Kolar, India.

ABSTRACT

Background: Pancytopenia is a relatively common hematological entity. It is a striking feature of many serious and life-threatening illnesses, ranging from simple drug-induced bone marrow hypoplasia, megaloblastic anemia to fatal bone marrow aplasias and leukemias. The severity of pancytopenia and the underlying pathology determine the management and prognosis. Thus, identification of the correct cause will help in implementing appropriate therapy.

Objectives: To study the clinical presentations in pancytopenia due to various causes; and to evaluate hematological parameters, including bone marrow aspiration.

Materials and methods: It was a prospective study, and 104 pancytopenic patients were evaluated clinically, along with hematological parameters and bone marrow aspiration in Hematology Unit, Department of Pathology, JJMMC, Davanagere, during the period of September 2005 to September 2007.

Results: Among 104 cases studied, age of patients ranged from 2 to 80 years with a mean age of 41 years, and male predominance. Most of the patients presented with generalized weakness and fever. The commonest physical finding was pallor, followed by splenomegaly and hepatomegaly. Dimorphic anemia was the predominant blood picture. Bone marrow aspiration was conclusive in all cases. The commonest marrow finding was hypercellularity with megaloblastic erythropoiesis. The commonest cause for pancytopenia was megaloblastic anemia (74.04%), followed by aplastic anemia (18.26%).

Conclusion: Thepresent study concludes that detailed primary hematological investigations along with bone marrow aspiration in cytopenic patients are helpful for understanding disease process and to diagnose or to rule out the causes of cytopenia. These are also helpful in planning further investigations and management.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus