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Combined approach to counteract experimental cancer cachexia: eicosapentaenoic acid and training exercise.

Penna F, Busquets S, Pin F, Toledo M, Baccino FM, López-Soriano FJ, Costelli P, Argilés JM - J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle (2011)

Bottom Line: BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia is a syndrome characterized by loss of skeletal muscle protein, depletion of lipid stores, anorexia, weakness, and perturbations of the hormonal homeostasis.RESULTS: EPA alone did not prevent the muscle loss induced by tumor growth while the combination with exercise induced a partial rescue of muscle strength and mass.ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13539-011-0028-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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ABSTRACT
BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia is a syndrome characterized by loss of skeletal muscle protein, depletion of lipid stores, anorexia, weakness, and perturbations of the hormonal homeostasis. Despite several therapeutic approaches described in the past, effective interventions countering cancer cachexia are still lacking. METHODS: The present work was aimed to verify the ability of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) to prevent the muscle depletion in Lewis lung carcinoma-bearing mice and to test the ability of endurance exercise training to increase the EPA effect. RESULTS: EPA alone did not prevent the muscle loss induced by tumor growth while the combination with exercise induced a partial rescue of muscle strength and mass. Moreover, the association of EPA and exercise reduced the dramatic PAX-7 accumulation and stimulated the increase of PCG-1 protein. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the present data suggest that exercise is an effective tool that should be added for combined therapeutic approaches against cancer cachexia. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13539-011-0028-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

No MeSH data available.


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PAX-7 and PGC-1 protein expression in the nuclear fraction in the GSN of controls, LLC-bearing mice (LLC) and LLC-treated with EPA plus exercised (EPA EX, see Section 2). Densitometric quantifications were normalized according to GAPDH levels. Data (means±SD) expressed as percentages of controls. Significance of the differences: *p < 0.05 vs C; **p < 0.01 vs C; $p < 0.05 vs LLC
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Fig7: PAX-7 and PGC-1 protein expression in the nuclear fraction in the GSN of controls, LLC-bearing mice (LLC) and LLC-treated with EPA plus exercised (EPA EX, see Section 2). Densitometric quantifications were normalized according to GAPDH levels. Data (means±SD) expressed as percentages of controls. Significance of the differences: *p < 0.05 vs C; **p < 0.01 vs C; $p < 0.05 vs LLC

Mentions: Protein hypercatabolism apart, muscle wasting could also be associated with alterations in the myogenic process. Impaired myogenesis has been recently suggested to contribute to the onset of muscle wasting in experimental cancer cachexia [28]. Pax7 protein levels, measured in the nuclear extracts, markedly increase in LLC-bearing mice (Fig. 7); such increase is prevented in part by the combination EPA + exercise.Fig. 7


Combined approach to counteract experimental cancer cachexia: eicosapentaenoic acid and training exercise.

Penna F, Busquets S, Pin F, Toledo M, Baccino FM, López-Soriano FJ, Costelli P, Argilés JM - J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle (2011)

PAX-7 and PGC-1 protein expression in the nuclear fraction in the GSN of controls, LLC-bearing mice (LLC) and LLC-treated with EPA plus exercised (EPA EX, see Section 2). Densitometric quantifications were normalized according to GAPDH levels. Data (means±SD) expressed as percentages of controls. Significance of the differences: *p < 0.05 vs C; **p < 0.01 vs C; $p < 0.05 vs LLC
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Fig7: PAX-7 and PGC-1 protein expression in the nuclear fraction in the GSN of controls, LLC-bearing mice (LLC) and LLC-treated with EPA plus exercised (EPA EX, see Section 2). Densitometric quantifications were normalized according to GAPDH levels. Data (means±SD) expressed as percentages of controls. Significance of the differences: *p < 0.05 vs C; **p < 0.01 vs C; $p < 0.05 vs LLC
Mentions: Protein hypercatabolism apart, muscle wasting could also be associated with alterations in the myogenic process. Impaired myogenesis has been recently suggested to contribute to the onset of muscle wasting in experimental cancer cachexia [28]. Pax7 protein levels, measured in the nuclear extracts, markedly increase in LLC-bearing mice (Fig. 7); such increase is prevented in part by the combination EPA + exercise.Fig. 7

Bottom Line: BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia is a syndrome characterized by loss of skeletal muscle protein, depletion of lipid stores, anorexia, weakness, and perturbations of the hormonal homeostasis.RESULTS: EPA alone did not prevent the muscle loss induced by tumor growth while the combination with exercise induced a partial rescue of muscle strength and mass.ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13539-011-0028-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT
BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia is a syndrome characterized by loss of skeletal muscle protein, depletion of lipid stores, anorexia, weakness, and perturbations of the hormonal homeostasis. Despite several therapeutic approaches described in the past, effective interventions countering cancer cachexia are still lacking. METHODS: The present work was aimed to verify the ability of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) to prevent the muscle depletion in Lewis lung carcinoma-bearing mice and to test the ability of endurance exercise training to increase the EPA effect. RESULTS: EPA alone did not prevent the muscle loss induced by tumor growth while the combination with exercise induced a partial rescue of muscle strength and mass. Moreover, the association of EPA and exercise reduced the dramatic PAX-7 accumulation and stimulated the increase of PCG-1 protein. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the present data suggest that exercise is an effective tool that should be added for combined therapeutic approaches against cancer cachexia. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13539-011-0028-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus