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Characterization of the diversity and temporal stability of bacterial communities in human milk.

Hunt KM, Foster JA, Forney LJ, Schütte UM, Beck DL, Abdo Z, Fox LK, Williams JE, McGuire MK, McGuire MA - PLoS ONE (2011)

Bottom Line: Recent investigations have demonstrated that human milk contains a variety of bacterial genera; however, as of yet very little work has been done to characterize the full diversity of these milk bacterial communities and their relative stability over time.Specifically, we characterized the bacterial communities present in milk samples collected from 16 women at three time-points over four weeks.Results indicated that milk bacterial communities were generally complex; several genera represented greater than 5% of the relative community abundance, and the community was often, yet not always, stable over time within an individual.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal and Veterinary Science, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Recent investigations have demonstrated that human milk contains a variety of bacterial genera; however, as of yet very little work has been done to characterize the full diversity of these milk bacterial communities and their relative stability over time. To more thoroughly investigate the human milk microbiome, we utilized microbial identification techniques based on pyrosequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Specifically, we characterized the bacterial communities present in milk samples collected from 16 women at three time-points over four weeks. Results indicated that milk bacterial communities were generally complex; several genera represented greater than 5% of the relative community abundance, and the community was often, yet not always, stable over time within an individual. These results support the conclusion that human milk, which is recommended as the optimal nutrition source for almost all healthy infants, contains a collection of bacteria more diverse than previously reported. This finding begs the question as to what role this community plays in colonization of the infant gastrointestinal tract and maintaining mammary health.

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A small proportion of the total richness was persistent within subject and represented the majority of the community present.A. The number of OTUs (as defined by 97% sequence similarity) observed across all samples for each woman ranged from 100 to 600; however, only a small proportion of those OTUs were present in every sample from an individual subject-representing the individual core milk microbiome. B. The individual core milk microbiome for each woman was composed of the OTUs present in each of her samples. This relatively small number of OTUs represented the majority of the relative abundance of the community observed over time.
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pone-0021313-g002: A small proportion of the total richness was persistent within subject and represented the majority of the community present.A. The number of OTUs (as defined by 97% sequence similarity) observed across all samples for each woman ranged from 100 to 600; however, only a small proportion of those OTUs were present in every sample from an individual subject-representing the individual core milk microbiome. B. The individual core milk microbiome for each woman was composed of the OTUs present in each of her samples. This relatively small number of OTUs represented the majority of the relative abundance of the community observed over time.

Mentions: The most abundant genera in milk (Figure 1; Table S1) were Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Serratia and Corynebacteria; however, eight other genera represented ≥1% of the communities observed across samples. Additionally, assignment of sequences into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) using a 3% similarity cutoff identified 100–600 OTUs present in the samples from each subject (Figure 2).


Characterization of the diversity and temporal stability of bacterial communities in human milk.

Hunt KM, Foster JA, Forney LJ, Schütte UM, Beck DL, Abdo Z, Fox LK, Williams JE, McGuire MK, McGuire MA - PLoS ONE (2011)

A small proportion of the total richness was persistent within subject and represented the majority of the community present.A. The number of OTUs (as defined by 97% sequence similarity) observed across all samples for each woman ranged from 100 to 600; however, only a small proportion of those OTUs were present in every sample from an individual subject-representing the individual core milk microbiome. B. The individual core milk microbiome for each woman was composed of the OTUs present in each of her samples. This relatively small number of OTUs represented the majority of the relative abundance of the community observed over time.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3117882&req=5

pone-0021313-g002: A small proportion of the total richness was persistent within subject and represented the majority of the community present.A. The number of OTUs (as defined by 97% sequence similarity) observed across all samples for each woman ranged from 100 to 600; however, only a small proportion of those OTUs were present in every sample from an individual subject-representing the individual core milk microbiome. B. The individual core milk microbiome for each woman was composed of the OTUs present in each of her samples. This relatively small number of OTUs represented the majority of the relative abundance of the community observed over time.
Mentions: The most abundant genera in milk (Figure 1; Table S1) were Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Serratia and Corynebacteria; however, eight other genera represented ≥1% of the communities observed across samples. Additionally, assignment of sequences into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) using a 3% similarity cutoff identified 100–600 OTUs present in the samples from each subject (Figure 2).

Bottom Line: Recent investigations have demonstrated that human milk contains a variety of bacterial genera; however, as of yet very little work has been done to characterize the full diversity of these milk bacterial communities and their relative stability over time.Specifically, we characterized the bacterial communities present in milk samples collected from 16 women at three time-points over four weeks.Results indicated that milk bacterial communities were generally complex; several genera represented greater than 5% of the relative community abundance, and the community was often, yet not always, stable over time within an individual.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal and Veterinary Science, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Recent investigations have demonstrated that human milk contains a variety of bacterial genera; however, as of yet very little work has been done to characterize the full diversity of these milk bacterial communities and their relative stability over time. To more thoroughly investigate the human milk microbiome, we utilized microbial identification techniques based on pyrosequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Specifically, we characterized the bacterial communities present in milk samples collected from 16 women at three time-points over four weeks. Results indicated that milk bacterial communities were generally complex; several genera represented greater than 5% of the relative community abundance, and the community was often, yet not always, stable over time within an individual. These results support the conclusion that human milk, which is recommended as the optimal nutrition source for almost all healthy infants, contains a collection of bacteria more diverse than previously reported. This finding begs the question as to what role this community plays in colonization of the infant gastrointestinal tract and maintaining mammary health.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus