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Different populations and sources of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC): A comparison of adult and neonatal tissue-derived MSC.

Hass R, Kasper C, Böhm S, Jacobs R - Cell Commun. Signal (2011)

Bottom Line: These multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) can be found in nearly all tissues and are mostly located in perivascular niches.MSC have migratory abilities and can secrete protective factors and act as a primary matrix for tissue regeneration during inflammation, tissue injuries and certain cancers.These functions underlie the important physiological roles of MSC and underscore a significant potential for the clinical use of distinct populations from the various tissues.In addition, several MSC functions including in vitro and in vivo differentiation capacities within a variety of lineages and immune-modulatory properties are highlighted.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Biochemistry and Tumor Biology, Gynecology Research Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University, Hannover, Carl-Neuberg-Straße 1, 30625 Hannover, Germany. hass.ralf@mh-hannover.de.

ABSTRACT
The mesenchymal stroma harbors an important population of cells that possess stem cell-like characteristics including self renewal and differentiation capacities and can be derived from a variety of different sources. These multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) can be found in nearly all tissues and are mostly located in perivascular niches. MSC have migratory abilities and can secrete protective factors and act as a primary matrix for tissue regeneration during inflammation, tissue injuries and certain cancers.These functions underlie the important physiological roles of MSC and underscore a significant potential for the clinical use of distinct populations from the various tissues. MSC derived from different adult (adipose tissue, peripheral blood, bone marrow) and neonatal tissues (particular parts of the placenta and umbilical cord) are therefore compared in this mini-review with respect to their cell biological properties, surface marker expression and proliferative capacities. In addition, several MSC functions including in vitro and in vivo differentiation capacities within a variety of lineages and immune-modulatory properties are highlighted. Differences in the extracellular milieu such as the presence of interacting neighbouring cell populations, exposure to proteases or a hypoxic microenvironment contribute to functional developments within MSC populations originating from different tissues, and intracellular conditions such as the expression levels of certain micro RNAs can additionally balance MSC function and fate.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

MSC mediate immunosuppression of T and NK cells via different mechanisms . Soluble factors secreted by MSC such as iNOS, IDO, PGE2, sHLA-G5 can suppress T- and NK cell functions, whereas galectin-1 inhibits T cells but not NK cells. In addition, MSC can indirectly mediate immunosuppression by inhibiting dendritic cells and inducing the expansion of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Furthermore, MSC can directly interact with T and NK cells via cell to cell contact. However, receptors and ligands involved in the cell contact-dependent interaction mechanisms are still largely unknown.
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Figure 3: MSC mediate immunosuppression of T and NK cells via different mechanisms . Soluble factors secreted by MSC such as iNOS, IDO, PGE2, sHLA-G5 can suppress T- and NK cell functions, whereas galectin-1 inhibits T cells but not NK cells. In addition, MSC can indirectly mediate immunosuppression by inhibiting dendritic cells and inducing the expansion of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Furthermore, MSC can directly interact with T and NK cells via cell to cell contact. However, receptors and ligands involved in the cell contact-dependent interaction mechanisms are still largely unknown.

Mentions: Two outstanding features of MSC are relevant to immunity: 1) immunosuppression and 2) the so called immunoprivilege. What do these terms mean? MSC-mediated immunosuppression describes the fact that MSC are able to suppress several functions exerted by diverse immunocytes such as T-, B-, and NK cells. The affected functions comprise proliferation, production of soluble factors (e.g. cytokines), and cellular cytotoxicity (Figure 3). Immunoprivilege means that MSC themselves are somehow protected from immunological defence mechanisms. Undoubtedly, there is much truth in the reports of MSC-mediated immune effects. Nevertheless, there also seems to be some conflicting data. The inconsistencies between some reports may, however, be due to the population diversity of the primary cultures and to the tissue- and species-origin of the MSC tested. As mentioned above, MSC are currently characterized using a minimum of surface markers, which might not be sufficient for their precise definition. A further cause for conflicting data could be the source (adipose tissue, blood, bone marrow, umbilical cord, umbilical cord blood) for isolation of the MSC. In order to review the immunological findings in MSC research we screened the literature and compared the data on immunological interactions between MSC and immune cells.


Different populations and sources of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC): A comparison of adult and neonatal tissue-derived MSC.

Hass R, Kasper C, Böhm S, Jacobs R - Cell Commun. Signal (2011)

MSC mediate immunosuppression of T and NK cells via different mechanisms . Soluble factors secreted by MSC such as iNOS, IDO, PGE2, sHLA-G5 can suppress T- and NK cell functions, whereas galectin-1 inhibits T cells but not NK cells. In addition, MSC can indirectly mediate immunosuppression by inhibiting dendritic cells and inducing the expansion of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Furthermore, MSC can directly interact with T and NK cells via cell to cell contact. However, receptors and ligands involved in the cell contact-dependent interaction mechanisms are still largely unknown.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3117820&req=5

Figure 3: MSC mediate immunosuppression of T and NK cells via different mechanisms . Soluble factors secreted by MSC such as iNOS, IDO, PGE2, sHLA-G5 can suppress T- and NK cell functions, whereas galectin-1 inhibits T cells but not NK cells. In addition, MSC can indirectly mediate immunosuppression by inhibiting dendritic cells and inducing the expansion of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Furthermore, MSC can directly interact with T and NK cells via cell to cell contact. However, receptors and ligands involved in the cell contact-dependent interaction mechanisms are still largely unknown.
Mentions: Two outstanding features of MSC are relevant to immunity: 1) immunosuppression and 2) the so called immunoprivilege. What do these terms mean? MSC-mediated immunosuppression describes the fact that MSC are able to suppress several functions exerted by diverse immunocytes such as T-, B-, and NK cells. The affected functions comprise proliferation, production of soluble factors (e.g. cytokines), and cellular cytotoxicity (Figure 3). Immunoprivilege means that MSC themselves are somehow protected from immunological defence mechanisms. Undoubtedly, there is much truth in the reports of MSC-mediated immune effects. Nevertheless, there also seems to be some conflicting data. The inconsistencies between some reports may, however, be due to the population diversity of the primary cultures and to the tissue- and species-origin of the MSC tested. As mentioned above, MSC are currently characterized using a minimum of surface markers, which might not be sufficient for their precise definition. A further cause for conflicting data could be the source (adipose tissue, blood, bone marrow, umbilical cord, umbilical cord blood) for isolation of the MSC. In order to review the immunological findings in MSC research we screened the literature and compared the data on immunological interactions between MSC and immune cells.

Bottom Line: These multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) can be found in nearly all tissues and are mostly located in perivascular niches.MSC have migratory abilities and can secrete protective factors and act as a primary matrix for tissue regeneration during inflammation, tissue injuries and certain cancers.These functions underlie the important physiological roles of MSC and underscore a significant potential for the clinical use of distinct populations from the various tissues.In addition, several MSC functions including in vitro and in vivo differentiation capacities within a variety of lineages and immune-modulatory properties are highlighted.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Biochemistry and Tumor Biology, Gynecology Research Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University, Hannover, Carl-Neuberg-Straße 1, 30625 Hannover, Germany. hass.ralf@mh-hannover.de.

ABSTRACT
The mesenchymal stroma harbors an important population of cells that possess stem cell-like characteristics including self renewal and differentiation capacities and can be derived from a variety of different sources. These multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) can be found in nearly all tissues and are mostly located in perivascular niches. MSC have migratory abilities and can secrete protective factors and act as a primary matrix for tissue regeneration during inflammation, tissue injuries and certain cancers.These functions underlie the important physiological roles of MSC and underscore a significant potential for the clinical use of distinct populations from the various tissues. MSC derived from different adult (adipose tissue, peripheral blood, bone marrow) and neonatal tissues (particular parts of the placenta and umbilical cord) are therefore compared in this mini-review with respect to their cell biological properties, surface marker expression and proliferative capacities. In addition, several MSC functions including in vitro and in vivo differentiation capacities within a variety of lineages and immune-modulatory properties are highlighted. Differences in the extracellular milieu such as the presence of interacting neighbouring cell populations, exposure to proteases or a hypoxic microenvironment contribute to functional developments within MSC populations originating from different tissues, and intracellular conditions such as the expression levels of certain micro RNAs can additionally balance MSC function and fate.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus